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Field Problems of Important Crops

Field Problems of Important Crops

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Published by AnuragBhatnagar

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: AnuragBhatnagar on Oct 06, 2010
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Deficiency :Nitrogen DeficiencyIntroduction :
iThe nitrogen deficiency first appears on older leaves. The leaves becomelight green to pale yellow from the tip towards the base forming the typical‘V’ shape pattern. Later the whole leaf turns yellow followed by drying or dropping of older leaves. The symptoms proceed up the plants as thedeficiency progresses.iiThe number of tillers / branches is considerably reduced.iiiInternodal length becomes short and the plant height decreases.ivEars / cobs are small resulting in very poor yield.
Affected Crops :
All crops except leguminous.
Remedial measures :
Apply nitrogenous fertilizers like urea, calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN),ammonium chloride.
Nitrogen deficiency in :
Photo No.1.1: Maize1.2: Rice1.3: Cotton1.4: Wheat
Deficiency :Phosphorus DeficiencyIntroduction :
(i)Like nitrogen, the deficiency appears on older leaves.(ii)The number of tillers is less.(iii)Root and shoot growth is restricted and the plant height is decreased.(iv)Diagnosis of phosphorus deficiency under field conditions is many a timesdifficult because of the absence of characteristics external symptoms.Therefore, fertilizer use history of the crop may be kept in view to deriveconclusion. However, under phosphorus deficient conditions, plantsdevelop purple or dark to blue-green colouration and necrotic areas onleaves, petioles or stems.(v)Maturity is delayed and the development of seed and fruit is poor.
Affected Crops :
Maize, wheat, rape and mustard.
Remedial measures :
Apply phosphatic or compound fertilizers containing phosphorus like singlesuperphosphate, triple superphosphate, diammonium phosphate (DAP), NPK.Phosphorus must be applied to ‘Rabi’ crops as these respond to its application. Itsapplication to ‘Kharif’ crops can be omitted if recommended rate of phoshorus has been applied to preceding crop.
Phosphorus deficiency in :
Photo No.1.5: Maize1.6: Response of maize to phosphorus1.7: Phosphorus deficiency in berseem1.8: Response of lentil to phosphours
Deficiency :Potassium DeficiencyIntroduction :
(i)The deficiency symptoms of potassium also appear on older leaves.(ii)Interveinal chlorosis followed by the development of necrotic areas at thetip and margins of the leaf appears first which later on results in scorchingand browning of these areas.(iii)Plants become stunted and leaves are excessively damaged when there isacute deficiency.(iv)The stalks become weak. Fruits and seeds are shrivelled.
Affected Crops :
Berseem, potato, rape and mustard
Remedial measures :
Apply muriate of potash on soil test basis as most of the soils of the state havesufficient reserve of potassium.
Potassium deficiency in :
Photo No.1.9 : Berseem1.10 : Potassium deficiency in berseem – a field view1.11 : Response of maze to potassium application
Deficiency :
Sulphur Deficiency
Introduction :
(i)Unlike nitrogen, sulphur deficiency appears on younger leaves.(ii)The leaves turn yellowish green or chlorotic leaving the tip slightly green.(iii)Under severe deficiency, all leaves may lose their green colour.(iv)Growth is stunted.(v)In legumes, nodulation is poor and nitrogen fixation is reduced.
Affected Crops :
Groundnut, raya, wheat, field pea
Remedial measures :
Apply gypsum or any sulphur – containing fertilizer like single superphosphateand ammonium sulphate.
Sulphur deficiency in :
Photo No.1.12 : Wheat1.13 : Groundnut1.14 : Field pea
Deficiency :Zinc DeficiencyIntroduction :Rice :
(i)Zinc deficiency symptoms appear on older leaves.(ii)Chlorosis along with small scattered light yellowish brown spots appear inthe interveinal areas of older leaves.(iii)Spots later enlarge, coalesce and turn deep brown frequently referred to asiron rust or bronzing.(iv)The leaf size is restricted and plants show bushy stunted growth.(v)Leaves dry up and fall or float on water.(vi)Earing and maturity are delayed resulting in poor crop yield.
Maize :
(i)The symptoms appear on middle leaves, second or third from top of plantshaving 5-6 leaves.(ii)The leaves show light yellow tissues with reddish veins, but the midrib andleaf margins remain green.(iii)Later it forms white band which extends parallel to midrib and its colouchanges to reddish/bluish red.(iv)Severely deficient plants are stunted and have shorter internodes.(v)Tasselling and silking are delayed.
Wheat :
(i)The third and fourth leaves from the top develop a band of white or yellowtissue in the middle of affected leaves.(ii)This is followed by interveinal chlorotic mottling and white to brownchlorotic region in the middle of the leaf blades.(iii)The necrotic areas intensify and coalesce resulting in the collapse of theaffected leaf near its middle.(iv)Plants show bushy stunted growth.(v)Earing and maturity are delayed resulting in poor yields.
Cotton :
(i)Younger leaves of deficient plants develop mild chlorosis. Such leaves aresmall, thick and rough. They also show cupping.(ii)Chlorosis of leaves is followed by appearance of maroon colouration of themarginal portion of leaf lamina.(iii)The deficiency leads to shortening of internodes and significant decline inflower formation.

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