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pidcontrollers

pidcontrollers

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06/30/2013

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 Prof. Zoran Vukic, PhDFaculty of Electrical Engineering and ComputingUniversity of ZagrebOgnjen KuljacaAutomation and Robotics Research InstituteThe University of Texas at Arlington
LECTURES ON PIDCONTROLLERS
April, 2002
 
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CONTENTS
1. CONVENTIONAL CONTROLLERS............................................................31.1 Basic controller types..............................................................................31.1.1 On-off controller.................................................................................41.1.2 P controller..........................................................................................51.1.3 PI controller.........................................................................................71.1.4 PID controller....................................................................................111.1.5 PD controller.....................................................................................141.2 Choice of the controller type.................................................................171.2.1 On-off controller...............................................................................171.2.2 P controller........................................................................................171.2.3 PD controller.....................................................................................171.2.4 PI controller.......................................................................................181.2.5 PID controller....................................................................................201.3 Topology of PID controllers.................................................................201.3.1 Parallel PID topology........................................................................211.3.2 Non-interactive "Derivative-of-output controller form" (PI-D form)221.3.3 Standard form (ISA form).................................................................231.3.4 Set-point-on-I-only controller (I-PD form).......................................241.3.5 General structure of parallel PID controller......................................251.3.6 Two-parameter form of PID controller.............................................261.3.7 Serial (interactive) structure (PD*PI form).......................................271.3.8 Interconnection between parallel and serial structure.......................271.4 PID controller parameter and topology identification...........................291.4.1 Identification of the controller gain K...............................................301.4.2 Identification of PID controller integral time constant T
i
.................311.4.3 Identification of PID controller derivative time constant T
d
.............321.4.4 Identification of PID controller topology..........................................331.5 Experimental tuning of PID controller parameters...............................341.5.1 Parameter tuning according to Ziegler-Nichols recommendations...341.6 Parameter tuning according to Cohen-Coon recommendations............411.7 Parameter tuning according to Chien-Hrones-Reswick (CHR)recommendations..........................................................................................................422. TABLE OF FIGURES..................................................................................443. INDEX OF TABLES....................................................................................454. REFERENCES..............................................................................................46
 
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1. CONVENTIONAL CONTROLLERS
Today, a number of different controllers are used in industry
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and in many otherfields. In quite general way those controllers can be divided into two main groups:
conventional controllers
unconventional controllersAs conventional controllers we can count a controllers known for years now, suchas P, PI, PD, PID, Otto-Smith, all their different types and realizations, and othercontroller types
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. It is a characteristic of all conventional controllers that one has to knowa mathematical model of the process in order to design a controller. Unconventionalcontrollers utilize a new approaches to the controller design in which knowledge of amathematical model of a process generally is not required. Examples of unconventionalcontroller are a fuzzy controller and neuro or neuro-fuzzy controllers.Manny industrial processes are nonlinear and thus complicate to describemathematically. However, it is known that a good many nonlinear processes cansatisfactory controlled using PID controllers providing that controller parameters aretuned well. Practical experience shows that this type of control has a lot of sense since itis simple and based on 3 basic behavior types: proportional (P), integrative (I) andderivative (D). Instead of using a small number of complex controllers, a larger numberof simple PID controllers is used to control simpler processes in an industrial assembly inorder to automates the certain more complex process. PID controller and its differenttypes such as P, PI and PD controllers are today a basic building blocks in control of various processes. In spite their simplicity, they can be used to solve even a very complexcontrol problems, especially when combined with different functional blocks, filters(compensators or correction blocks), selectors etc. A continuous development of newcontrol algorithms insure that the time of PID controller has not past and that this basicalgorithm will have its part to play in process control in foreseeable future. It can beexpected that it will be a backbone of many complex control systems.
1.1 Basic controller types
PID controllers use a 3 basic behavior types or modes: P - proportional, I -integrative and D - derivative. While proportional and integrative modes are also used assingle control modes, a derivative mode is rarely used on it’s own in control systems.Combinations such as PI and PD control are very often in practical systems. It can be alsoshown that PID controller is a natural generalization of a simplest possible controller -On-off controller.
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Pharmaceutical, chemical industry, etc.
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Optimal, adaptive, robust, nonlinear etc.

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