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Libya's Foreign Policy: Drivers and Objectives

Libya's Foreign Policy: Drivers and Objectives

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This paper argues that the policy process in Libya is complex and intensely personalized around the figure of the Libyan leader, but the constant and underlying theme since the 1990s has been regaining international acceptance.
This paper argues that the policy process in Libya is complex and intensely personalized around the figure of the Libyan leader, but the constant and underlying theme since the 1990s has been regaining international acceptance.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: German Marshall Fund of the United States on Oct 06, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/03/2013

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Mediterranean PaPer SerieS
2010
LIBYA'S
FOreiGn POLiCY 
:
 
DRIVERS AND OBJECTIVES
 
Gog Joffé  emul Pol
 
© 2010 Te German Marshall Fund o the United States. All rights reserved.No part o this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any orm or by any means without permission in writingrom the German Marshall Fund o the United States (GMF). Please direct inquiries to:Te German Marshall Fund o the United States1744 R Street, NWWashington, DC 200091 202 683 2650F 1 202 265 1662E ino@gmus.orgTis publication can be downloaded or ree at www.gmus.org/publications. Limited printcopies are also available. o request a copy, send an e-mail to ino@gmus.org.
GMF Pp Ss
Te GMF Paper Series presents research on a variety o transatlantic topics by sta, ellows, and partners o the GermanMarshall Fund o the United States. Te views expressed here are those o the author and do not necessarily represent the views o GMF. Comments rom readers are welcome; reply to the mailing address above or by e-mail to ino@gmus.org.
abou GMF
Te German Marshall Fund o the United States (GMF) is a non-partisan American public policy and grantmaking institu-tion dedicated to promoting better understanding and cooperation between North America and Europe on transatlanticand global issues.GMF does this by supporting individuals and institutions working in the transatlantic sphere, by convening leaders andmembers o the policy and business communities, by contributing research and analysis on transatlantic topics, and by pro- viding exchange opportunities to oster renewed commitment to the transatlantic relationship. In addition, GMF supports anumber o initiatives to strengthen democracies.Founded in 1972 through a gi rom Germany as a permanent memorial to Marshall Plan assistance, GMF maintains astrong presence on both sides o the Atlantic. In addition to its headquarters in Washington, DC, GMF has six oces inEurope: Berlin, Paris, Brussels, Belgrade, Ankara, and Bucharest. GMF also has smaller representations in Bratislava, urin,and Stockholm.
abou h M Polcy Pogm
Te Mediterranean Policy Program promotes transatlantic analysis and dialogue on issues aecting Southern Europe, NorthArica, the Levant, and the Mediterranean basin. Priority areas include: understanding trends in Mediterranean societies;exploring opportunities or south-south cooperation and integration; research on key unctional issues aecting Mediter-ranean security and development; and strengthening the North American policy debate on the region and transatlanticcooperation on Mediterranean strategy.
abou isuo aff izol
Te Istituto Aari Internazionali (IAI), ounded by Altiero Spinelli in 1965, does research in the felds o oreign policy,political economics, and international security. A non-proft organization, the IAI aims to disseminate knowledge throughresearch studies, conerences, and publications. o that end, it cooperates with other research institutes, universities, andoundations in Italy and abroad and is a member o various international networks. More specifcally, the main researchsectors are European institutions and policies, Italian oreign policy, trends in the global economy and internationalizationprocesses in Italy, the Mediterranean and the Middle East, deense economy and policy, and transatlantic relations. Te IAIputs out an English-language quarterly (
Te International Spectator 
), an online webzine (
 AfarInternazionali
), a series o research papers (Quaderni IAI) and an Italian oreign policy yearbook (
La Politica Estera dell’Italia
).Cover photo: Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi (le) shakes hands with Libyan leader Muammar Gaddaf (right) dur-ing a signing agreement in Benghazi, Libya, August 30, 2008. © Sabri Elmhedwhi/epa/Corbis
 
 L
IBYA
'
S
F
OREIGN
P
OLICY
:
 
D
RIVERS AND
O
BJECTIVES
 M
EDITERRANEAN
P
APER
S
ERIES
 O
CTOBER
2010
George Joffé
1
and Emanuela Paoletti
2
 
Executive Summary .......................................................................................................................... 11. Introduction .................................................................................................................................. 22. Actors in Policy ............................................................................................................................. 33. The Intellectual Bases of Libya’s Foreign Policy .......................................................................... 54. Colonel Qadhafi’s Views on Foreign Affairs ............................................................................... 65. An Analysis of the Policy Process ................................................................................................ 86. The Ideological Underpinning ..................................................................................................... 117. Policy Implementation .................................................................................................................. 14Formal Institutions ................................................................................................................. 14Informal Actors ...................................................................................................................... 15Intermediaries ......................................................................................................................... 178. Policy Arenas ................................................................................................................................. 19The United States and Britain ............................................................................................... 19The Turnaround Post 1986 .................................................................................................... 20The European Dimension ...................................................................................................... 27The Arab and African Worlds ............................................................................................... 32The Wider World: the BRICs ................................................................................................ 399. Conclusions and Policy Implications ........................................................................................... 41
1
University of Cambridge
 
2
University of Oxford

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