Clinical Observation on Mycobiota of Postmortem Samples ofCommercial Broiler Suspected For hemorrhagic Proventriculitis andGizzard Erosion in Nepal1.Dr.Kedar KarkiSenior Veterinary officer2.Poornima ManandharSenior Veterinary Officer3. Pragya KoiralaVeterinary OfficerCentral Veterinary Laboratory Tripureshwor Kathmandu ,NepalAbstract:
A new disease condition has emerged affecting replacement pullets. It affects the birdsbetween 2 to 10 weeks of age. The mortality rate varies between 1 to 10% and ultimately theflock is left with creation of several small poorly feathered and pale chicks. Though it has notbeen possible to establish the exact cause of this condition, following three points has beentaken in consideration. Hemorrhagic Proliferative Proventriculitis and Gizzard Erosion is anillness that involves one or more infectious agents.One the cause suspected for it is mycoticorigion. The digestive tract and endocrine organs may be primary targets for these agents.Thespectrum of signs or lesions are either caused by or exacerbated by nutritional, husbandry andhygienic factors.The response to the treatment is often poor but the symptomatic treatmentwith toxinbinder like toxolivum liquid,hepatocare, alongwith immunomodulaters likeimmunocare,and promin has significantly helped in ameliorating the mortality. Similarcondition has been widely reported in broilers under various names like Malabsorptionsyndrome, infectious Proventriculitis, infectious runting syndrome, pale bird syndrome andstunting syndrome. Same condition is likely to be emmerging as a problem for coomercialbroiler after 3rd week age.
Review of Litrature:
Mycotoxins T2 toxin produced by fusarium is a caustic irritant. It causes necrosis of mucosa ofproventriculus, gizzard and feather epithelium. Citrinin which is basically a nephrotoxin canalso cause fissures in the gizzard Oosporein – In oosporein poisoning one may notice that theproventriculus has enlarged circumference at the isthumus and the mucosa is covered withpseudomembranous exudate (necrosis may occur at the isthumus).Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) –Lesions occur in proventriculus, gizzard, liver and spleen. Theproventriculus is dialated and themucosa is thickened by hyperplasia and ulceration. Mucosal necrosis may occur in gizzard (DrManuel Contreras and Dr Douglas Zavieso).Infectious Factors Adenovirus – According to case reports, gizzard erosion is characterised byadenovirus intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Reovirus infection could be a factorin the pathogenesis of histamine associated proventricular enlargement High levels of Dietorybiogenic amine’s like histamine, 3HT, 5HT,histidine, dopamine, gizzerosine and serotonine, canbe found in dietary constituents such as tankage fish meal, corn screening, soyabean meal,vitamin premixes, fats, poultry meal, meat and bone meal. The biogenic amines aredecarboxylation breakdown products of amino acid catabolism and these amines are consideredtoxic to animals. The potential for biogenic amine build-up is real in animal by product mealand is the result of breakdown of the product. Histamine is produced in the poultry feed underproper temperature and moisture conditions by microbial decarboxylation of histidine. Reducedgrowth, poor feathering and proventricular enlargement have been associated with histaminetoxicity in chickens. Histamine toxin problem in chicken generally has been associated with the