Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Clinical Observation on Mycobiota of Postmortem Samples of Commercial Broiler Suspected for Hemorrhagic Proventriculitis and Gizzard Erosion in Nepal

Clinical Observation on Mycobiota of Postmortem Samples of Commercial Broiler Suspected for Hemorrhagic Proventriculitis and Gizzard Erosion in Nepal

Ratings: (0)|Views: 69|Likes:
Published by kellykat64

More info:

Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: kellykat64 on Jul 10, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Clinical Observation on Mycobiota of Postmortem Samples ofCommercial Broiler Suspected For hemorrhagic Proventriculitis andGizzard Erosion in Nepal1.Dr.Kedar KarkiSenior Veterinary officer2.Poornima ManandharSenior Veterinary Officer3. Pragya KoiralaVeterinary OfficerCentral Veterinary Laboratory Tripureshwor Kathmandu ,NepalAbstract:
A new disease condition has emerged affecting replacement pullets. It affects the birdsbetween 2 to 10 weeks of age. The mortality rate varies between 1 to 10% and ultimately theflock is left with creation of several small poorly feathered and pale chicks. Though it has notbeen possible to establish the exact cause of this condition, following three points has beentaken in consideration. Hemorrhagic Proliferative Proventriculitis and Gizzard Erosion is anillness that involves one or more infectious agents.One the cause suspected for it is mycoticorigion. The digestive tract and endocrine organs may be primary targets for these agents.Thespectrum of signs or lesions are either caused by or exacerbated by nutritional, husbandry andhygienic factors.The response to the treatment is often poor but the symptomatic treatmentwith toxinbinder like toxolivum liquid,hepatocare, alongwith immunomodulaters likeimmunocare,and promin has significantly helped in ameliorating the mortality. Similarcondition has been widely reported in broilers under various names like Malabsorptionsyndrome, infectious Proventriculitis, infectious runting syndrome, pale bird syndrome andstunting syndrome. Same condition is likely to be emmerging as a problem for coomercialbroiler after 3rd week age.
Review of Litrature:
Mycotoxins T2 toxin produced by fusarium is a caustic irritant. It causes necrosis of mucosa ofproventriculus, gizzard and feather epithelium. Citrinin which is basically a nephrotoxin canalso cause fissures in the gizzard Oosporein – In oosporein poisoning one may notice that theproventriculus has enlarged circumference at the isthumus and the mucosa is covered withpseudomembranous exudate (necrosis may occur at the isthumus).Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) –Lesions occur in proventriculus, gizzard, liver and spleen. Theproventriculus is dialated and themucosa is thickened by hyperplasia and ulceration. Mucosal necrosis may occur in gizzard (DrManuel Contreras and Dr Douglas Zavieso).Infectious Factors Adenovirus – According to case reports, gizzard erosion is characterised byadenovirus intranuclear inclusion bodies in epithelial cells. Reovirus infection could be a factorin the pathogenesis of histamine associated proventricular enlargement High levels of Dietorybiogenic amine’s like histamine, 3HT, 5HT,histidine, dopamine, gizzerosine and serotonine, canbe found in dietary constituents such as tankage fish meal, corn screening, soyabean meal,vitamin premixes, fats, poultry meal, meat and bone meal. The biogenic amines aredecarboxylation breakdown products of amino acid catabolism and these amines are consideredtoxic to animals. The potential for biogenic amine build-up is real in animal by product mealand is the result of breakdown of the product. Histamine is produced in the poultry feed underproper temperature and moisture conditions by microbial decarboxylation of histidine. Reducedgrowth, poor feathering and proventricular enlargement have been associated with histaminetoxicity in chickens. Histamine toxin problem in chicken generally has been associated with the
intake of fish meal which contain high level of histidine Gizzerosine is a compound found inoverheated fish meal due to interaction of caesine with histidine and acts as a factor causinggizzard erosion or ulceration in chicks. It can also be formed if the temperature of fish mealincreases by incorrect handling during transportation or storage particularly in hot weather(Martin D. Ficken,) .Then gizzerosine concentration of burnt fish meal would be low because of degradation ofprotein. However it is also likely that fish meal with good colour, odour, taste and physicalproperties may contain a large enough quantity of gizzerosine.Gizzerosine stimulatesproventricular gland secretarycells to release excessive hydrochloric acid. Gizzard lesionsresult from the runway digestive effects of hyperacidity. Opportunistic bacteria maysubsequently colonise the nutrient rich biodetrius. The cells of the glandular alveoli of theproventriculus secrete hydrochloric acids and pepsinogen (pepsin) which is a digestive enzymerequired for initial digestion of proteins. Any lesion in the preventricular glands will interferewith the secretion of pepsin with subsequent impairment of protein digestion and utilisation.The results are poor production performance, unthriftiness and poor feed conversion. Thiscould also explain why some of the birds affected with this condition pass undigested or poorlydigested feed in faeces (G. D. Butcher) .. A Reo virus strain (SS 412 stain) was isolated from an outbreak ofproventriculitis/malabsorption of syndrome; the role of this reovirus strain in that outbreakwas proven in experimental studies. Further studies have demonstrated that chicks frombreeder hens which have been vaccinated with oil imulsion SS 412 virus vaccine were protectedagainst. Proventriculitis following experimental challenge with the SS 412 reovirus strain.Anaerobic bacteria like clostridia are sometimes found as secondary invaders resulting in eitherulcerative enteritis or necrotic hepatitis. It will be interesting to study the effect of virusesalso since both of them cause the lesions in the proventriculus (G. D. Butcher).Other FactorsRather than ameliorating the effects of malabsorbtion syndrome, vitamin A caused a furtherreduction in body weight and bone ash according to a study. Supplementation of vitamin Esignificantly reduced both mortality and the effects of disease in body weight gain in anoutbreak of pale bird syndrome in broiler chicks of 3 weeks. Amino acid imbalance (lysine andmethoinine especially), excess dietary copper sulfate, lack of dietary fibre, deprivation of foodand water have also been found to be responsible for the heamorhagic prolifirativeproventriculitis and gizzard erosion. Lesions Proventriculi lose their normal flusiform shape andnormal constriction at the junction with gizzard are diffusely enlarged and have a thickenedand turgidwall. Thickening of the wall is more marked upon incising the proventriculus.Theproventricular glands protrude irregularly from the mucosal surface, lose their normal patternand contain milky fluid that could be expressed with slight pressure. The gizzard is oftensmaller than normal and flabby. The gizzard peels off easily with haemorrhagic ulceration ofthe gizzard wall(Dr. Avinash Dhawale) . An clinical epidemiological investigation of Acutesudden death syndrome due to which 31 mules from a herd of 9oo died within the period of2006-7-12 to2006-10-21 in Udayapur District Nepal. These animals were being used for goodtransportation work in hilly region of Nepal. On rout these animals were being fed only wholemaize and grame.Normally healthy looking animals started dying suddenly. Initially suspectedfor acute bacterial disease and treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics and vaccinated withbacterial vaccine.On close observation of herd their feed stuff revealed grains fed to theseanimal during rainy season was found 20% moldy in appearance. On Postmortem examinationacute severe congestion and hemorrhages in liver, lung, spleen heart, intestinal mucosa werefound.Histopathological examination of tissue from these organs revealed infiltration ofmononuclear cell in tissue indicative of chronic nature of condition.Continous use of apparently15-20% moldy grain (maize, gram) was used as feed. On laboratory analysis of sample of samegrain was found to be containing 60-110CFU/gm of Penicillium spp of fungus ( Dr.Karki et.alhttp://www.alumbo.com/article/43263. Feed contamination can lead to nutrient losses anddetrimental effects on animal health and production. Feed mould counts ranged from <1× 102to 1× 105 cfu/g. The most frequent genus isolated was Aspergillus (40.54%), followed by
Penicillium (18.38%) and Fusarium (16.22%) K. M. Keller1, B. D. Queiroz1, L. A. M. Keller1, J. M.M. Ribeiro1, L. R. Cavaglieri2 , M. L. González Pereyra2, A. M. Dalcero2 and C. A. R. Rosa1.High levels of fungal species and mycotoxins (the toxins produced by some fungi) have beenidentified in equine feeds. This contamination can result in nutrient losses from the food, andnegatively impact the health and productivity of horses. The most common fungi identified inthis study were Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium, and the amount of fungi in the feedexceed the proposed limit of 104 cfu per gram Stacey Oke, DVM, MSc, September 08 2007,Article # 10366.
 Material and Methods:Observation of flock 
Flock size Age/week Morbidity Mortality100-500(30)4-6 25-100 2-10500-1000(50)4-6 100-200 10-201000-1500(130)4-6 200-300 20-301500-2000(74)4-6 300-350 30-35
lesions observed during postmortem:
Anemic appearance, poor growth, pale skin

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->