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cpu-MAINTENANCE INFORMATIQUE11SUR30

cpu-MAINTENANCE INFORMATIQUE11SUR30

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Published by FOUAD EL BRAHMI

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Published by: FOUAD EL BRAHMI on Jul 10, 2008
Copyright:Public Domain

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05/09/2014

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I
tmayinitiallyappeartobealongstepfromthegenericmicroprocessoroftheprevioussec-tion to a real PC system, but in reality it’s not. In this section we will investigate how ad-vanced microprocessors used in 8-, 16-, 32- and 64-bit systems expand the basic conceptsdeveloped in the $1.98 computer. This investigation includes the 80386SX microprocessor used in the Turbo-PC system. The overall operation of both systems is based on the samefundamental, binary concepts. As a matter of fact, both computers could have been con-structed using only the basic
NAND
and
NOR 
gates.Figure1depictsthevariousblocksthatmakeupan8088-based,XT-compatiblesystemandillustrates how these blocks are connected together. Understanding and working with anyelectronicsystem(digitalsystemsincluded)requiresthatyouunderstandthefunctionoftheindividual blocks which make up the system.AttheheartofPCandPC-XTcompatiblesystemsisthe40-pin8088
m
P.The8088isahigh performanceHMOSmicroprocessorwhichhasattributesofboth8and16-bitprocessors.Itsinternal structure supports 16-bit words but it only uses an 8-bit data bus. In this manner, itsinternaldataregisterscanbeusedassingle16-bitregisters,dividedintohigherandloweror-derbytes,orusedasindependent8-bitregisterpairs.Thisallowsthe8088toperformboth8and 16-bit signed and unsigned arithmetic operations, using binary or decimal numbers.These operations include both multiplication and division. The 8088 supports a 20-bit ad-dress bus that allows it to directly access 1 Megabyte (1,048,576) of memory and I/O ad-dresses.The 8088-2 version can run at either of two standard clock rates; a 4.77 MHz normal clock frequency and a high-speed (Turbo) 8 MHz clock frequency. In addition, the 8088 can beusedintwoconfigurationmodes:(1)
maximummode
,inwhichthesystemusesafulllineof 8088supportchipsandcanaccommodatehighspeednumericandI/Oco-processors,and(2)
minimummode
,wherethe8088handlessystemfunctions,suchasbuscontrol,byitself.InPC compatibles, the 8088 is configured for 
maximum mode operation
.
THE 8088 MICROPROCESSOR 1
INTRODUCTION
 T
HE
8088 M
ICROPROCESSOR
 
THE 8088 MICROPROCESSOR 2
Figure 1:XT-Compatible SystemBlock Diagram
 
THE 8088 MICROPROCESSOR 3
Figure 1:XT-Compatible SystemBlock Diagram

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