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DISQUE DUR -MAINTENANCE INFORMATIQUE

DISQUE DUR -MAINTENANCE INFORMATIQUE

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Published by FOUAD EL BRAHMI

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Published by: FOUAD EL BRAHMI on Jul 10, 2008
Copyright:Public Domain

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09/10/2010

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 N
earlyeverymicrocomputerincludessometypeofmassinformationstoragesystemthatenables it to store data or programs for an extended period of time. Unlike primarymemorydevices,whicharefastandhavearelativelylowstoragecapacity,massstoragesys-tems are usually slower and possess much larger storage potential. These systems representan acceptable alternative to the IC RAM/ROM devices used on system and video cards. AswiththeROMdevices,thesesystemsmustbecapableofholdinginformationevenwhenthecomputer is turned off. On the other hand, these systems are similar to RAM devices in thattheir information can be updated and changed often.Themostwidelyusedmassstoragesystemshavetypicallyinvolvedcoveringsomemediumwith a magnetic coating.Theseincludeflexiblemylardisks(referredtoasfloppydisks),rigid,aluminumharddisks,andvariouswidthsofflexiblemylartape.Theinformationtobestoredonthemediumiscon-verted into electromagnetic pulses, which, in turn are used to create tiny positive and nega-tive magnetized spots on the magnetic surface. To retrieve, or read, the information back fromthesurface,thestoragesystemmustdetectthespotsanddecodethem.Thestoredinfor-mationcanbechangedatanytimebyre-magnetizingthesurfacewiththenewinformation.
MAGNETIC DISKS
Becausethetrackstowardtheouteredgeofthediskarelongerthantheinnertracks,alltracksare divided into an equal number of equal-size data blocks, called
sectors
. Therefore, each blockofdatahasanaddressthatisthecombinationofitstracknumberanditssectornumber.Eachsectorcanbeaccessedforareadorwriteoperationasquicklyasanyothersectoronthedisk, so disk memories are classified as
direct access memory
.Thetracksofthediskarenumbered,beginningwith00,fromtheouteredgeofthediskpro-ceeding inward. Each side of the disk can hold 80 or more tracks, depending on the type of diskandthedriveused.Whendisksarestacked,suchasinahard-diskdrive,allofthetrackswith the same number are referred to collectively as a
cylinder
. The number of sectors oneach track runs between 8 and 50, also depending on the disk and drive type.
HOW MAGNETIC DISKS WORK 1
INTRODUCTION
H
OW 
M
AGNETIC
D
ISKS
ORK 
Magneticdisksresemblephonographrecordswithoutgrooves,andtheyfallintotwogeneral categories: high-speed hard disks and slower flexible disks. Data bits are re-corded serially in concentric circles, called
tracks
, around the disk.
 
In some floppy-disk systems, the sectors are identified by holes along the outer or inner pe-ripheryofthedisk.Thisisreferredtoas
hardsectoring
 becausehardwareisusedtoidentifythe sectors by physically counting the holes as the disk rotates. In other flexible-and hard-disk systems, track and sector address information is contained in a track/sector identifica-tioncoderecordedonthedisk.Thismethodofaddressspecificationisknownas
softsector-ing
because the sector information is written in software. Figure 1 depicts a typicalsoft-sectoredtrackandsectorarrangement.PC-compatiblesystemsusesoft-sectoreddisks.Each sector is separated from the previous and following sectors by a small
gap
of unre-corded space. A typical sector contains 256 (2
8
) or 512 (2
9
) bytes, but on some systems thisvalue may range as low as 128 (2
7
) bytes or as high as 1024 (2
10
) bytes per sector. The mostcommonsectorsizeintheIBM-compatible/DOSworldis512bytes.Withintheseconfines,the sector is segmented, beginning with an
ID field header
, which tells the controlling cir-cuitry that an ID area containing the physical address information is approaching. A small
datafieldheader
 precedes the actual
datafield
. The data field is followed by a
postamble
containing error-checking and correcting codes for the data recorded in the sector.Intheiroriginalconditions,harddisksandsoft-sectoreddisks,aswellasmagnetictapes,are blank.Thesystemmustpreparethemtoholddata.Thesystem’sdisk-drivecontrolcircuitryaccomplishes this by writing track/sector identification and gap locations on the disk, in a process known as
formatting
. This leads to some confusion when disk storage capacity isspecified. Capacity may be stated for either formatted or un-formatted conditions. Obvi-ously, the capacity of an un-formatted disk is greater because no gap or ID information has been added to the disk.
HOW MAGNETIC DISKS WORK 2
Figure 1: Disk Tracksand Sectors
 
Reading and Writing on Magnetic Surfaces
Information read from or to be written to the disk is usually held in a dedicated part of thecomputer’s RAM memory. The system then accesses the data from this memory location atspeeds compatible with the microprocessor.TheR/Wheadconsistsofacoilofwirewrappedaroundasoftironcore,asdepictedinFigure2.Asmall
airgap
inthecoreridesabovethemagneticcoatingonthedisk’ssurface.Dataiswrittentothediskbypulsingthecoilwithasurgeofcurrent,whichproduces
magneticlinesofflux
inthesoftironcore.Attheairgap,thelinesoffluxdipdownintothedisk’smagneticcoating due to its low reluctance (compared to air). This, in turn, causes the
magnetic do-mains
intherecordingsurfacetoalignthemselvesinadirectiondictatedbythedirectionof currentflowinthecoil.Themagneticdomainsofthesurfacecanassumeoneofthreepossi- ble states, depending on the direction of current flow through the R/W head:
·
Un-magnetized (randomly arranged domains)
·
Domains magnetized in a positive direction
·
Domains magnetized in a negative directionDataisreadfromthediskinareversalofthisprocess.Asthemagnetizedspotsonthesurface passbythehead,changesinmagneticpolarityinducelinesoffluxintotheironcore.This,inturn, induces a small voltage in the coil. This voltage is sensed and amplified to the proper digital logic levels by the drive’s read circuitry. One significant difference exists betweenreadingandwritingonmagneticsurfaces,however.
Writing
onthesurfacerecords succes-sivezonesofpositiveornegativeflux,but
reading
candetectonlyfluxchanges(suchas the boundaries between zones of differing polarity).
HOW MAGNETIC DISKS WORK 3
Dataisreadfrom,orwrittentothediskonesectoratatime.Toperformareadorwriteoperation, the address of the particular track and sector to be accesses is applied to asteppermotor,whichmovesa
read/write
(
R/W
)
head
overthedesiredtrack.Asthedesired sector passes beneath the R/W head, the data transfer occurs.
Figure 2:Typical R/WHead

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