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Fundamentals of Nursing (2) - 100 Items - Answers and Rationale

Fundamentals of Nursing (2) - 100 Items - Answers and Rationale

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Published by: mikErlh on Oct 07, 2010
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Fundamentals Of Nursing : Infection, Asepsis, Basic concept of stress and IllnessCorrect Answers and Rationales
Fundamentals Of Nursing : Infection, Asepsis, Basic concept of stress and IllnessBy : Budekhttp://www.pinoybsn.tk 
CONTENT OUTLINE1. Illness2. Infection and Asepsis3. Basic concept of Stress and Adaptation
 1. When the General adaptation syndrome is activated, FLIGHT OR FIGHT response sets in.Sympathetic nervous system releases norepinephrine while the adrenal medulla secretesepinephrine. Which of the following is true with regards to that statement?A. Pupils will constrictB. Client will be lethargic
C. Lungs will bronchodilate
 D. Gastric motility will increase* To better understand the concept : The autonomic nervous system is composed of SYMPATHETIC and PARASYMPATHETIC Nervous system. It is called AUTONOMIC Because itis Involuntary and stimuli based. You cannot tell your heart to kindly beat for 60 perminute, Nor, Tell your blood vessels, Please constrict, because you need to wear skirt todayand your varicosities are bulging. Sympathetic Nervous system is the FIGHT or FLIGHTmechanism. When people FIGHT or RUN, we tend to stimulate the ANS and dominate overSNS. Just Imagine a person FIGHTING and RUNNING to get the idea on the signs of SNSDomination. Imagine a resting and digesting person to get a picture of PNS Domination. Aperson RUNNING or FIGHTING Needs to bronchodilate, because the oxygen need isincreased due to higher demand of the body. Pupils will DILATE to be able to see the enemyclearly. Client will be fully alert to dodge attacks and leap through obstacles during running.The client's gastric motility will DECREASE Because you cannot afford to urinate or defecateduring fighting nor running.
2. Which of the following response is not expected to a person whose GAS is activated andthe FIGHT OR FLIGHT response sets in?A. The client will not urinate due to relaxation of the detrusor muscleB. The client will be restless and alert
C. Clients BP will increase, there will be vasodilation
 D. There will be increase glycogenolysis, Pancrease will decrease insulin secretion* If vasodilation will occur, The BP will not increase but decrease. It is true that Bloodpressure increases during SNS Stimulation due to the fact that we need more BLOOD tocirculate during the FIGHT or FLIGHT Response because the oxygen demand has increased,but this is facilitated by vasoconstriction and not vasodilation. A,B and D are all correct. Theliver will increase glycogenolysis or glycogen store utilization due to a heightened demandfor energy. Pancrease will decrease insulin secretion because almost every aspect of digestion that is controlled by Parasympathetic nervous system is inhibited when the SNSdominates.3. State in which a person’s physical, emotional, intellectual and social development orspiritual functioning is diminished or impaired compared with a previous experience.
A. Illness
B. DiseaseC. HealthD. Wellness* Disease is a PROVEN FACT based on a medical theory, standards, diagnosis and clinicalfeature while ILLNESS Is a subjective state of not feeling well based on subjective appraisal,previous experience, peer advice etc.4. This is the first stage of illness wherein, the person starts to believe that something iswrong. Also known as the transition phase from wellness to illness.
A. Symptom Experience
 B. Assumption of sick roleC. Medical care contactD. Dependent patient role* A favorite board question are
Stages of Illness
. When a person starts to believesomething is wrong, that person is experiencing signs and symptoms of an illness. Thepatient will then ASSUME that he is sick. This is called assumption of the sick role where thepatient accepts he is Ill and try to give up some activities. Since the client only ASSUMEShis illness, he will try to ask someone to validate if what he is experiencing is a disease, Thisis now called as MEDICAL CARE CONTACT. The client seeks professional advice forvalidation, reassurance, clarification and explanation of the symptoms he is experiencing.client will then start his dependent patient role of receiving care from the health careproviders. The last stage of Illness is the RECOVERY stage where the patient gives up thesick role and assumes the previous normal gunctions.5. In this stage of illness, the person accepts or rejects a professionals suggestion. Theperson also becomes passive and may regress to an earlier stage.A. Symptom ExperienceB. Assumption of sick roleC. Medical care contact
D. Dependent patient role
 * In the dependent patient role stage, Client needs professionals for help. They have achoice either to accept or reject the professional's decisions but patients are usually passiveand accepting. Regression tends to occur more in this period.6. In this stage of illness, The person learns to accept the illness.A. Symptom Experience
B. Assumption of sick role
 C. Medical care contactD. Dependent patient role* Acceptance of illness occurs in the Assumption of sick role phase of illness.7. In this stage, the person tries to find answers for his illness. He wants his illness to bevalidated, his symptoms explained and the outcome reassured or predictedA. Symptom ExperienceB. Assumption of sick role
C. Medical care contact
 D. Dependent patient role* At this stage, The patient seeks for validation of his symptom experience. He wants tofind out if what he feels are normal or not normal. He wants someone to explain why is he
feeling these signs and symptoms and wants to know the probable outcome of thisexperience.8. The following are true with regards to aspect of the sick role except
A. One should be held responsible for his condition
B. One is excused from his societal roleC. One is obliged to get well as soon as possibleD. One is obliged to seek competent help* The nurse should not judge the patient and not view the patient as the cause or someoneresponsible for his illness. A sick client is excused from his societal roles, Oblige to get wellas soon as possible and Obliged to seek competent help.9. Refers to conditions that increases vulnerability of individual or group to illness oraccidentA. Predisposing factorB. Etiology
C. Risk factor
D. Modifiable Risks10. Refers to the degree of resistance the potential host has against a certain pathogen
A. Susceptibility
 B. ImmunityC. VirulenceD. Etiology* Immunity is the ABSOLUTE Resistance to a pathogen considering that person has anINTACT IMMUNITY while susceptibility is the DEGREE of resistance. Degree of resistancemeans how well would the individual combat the pathogens and repel infection or invasionof these disease causing organisms. A susceptible person is someone who has a very lowdegree of resistance to combat pathogens. An Immune person is someone that can easilyrepel specific pathogens. However, Remember that even if a person is IMMUNE [Vaccination ] Immunity can always be impaired in cases of chemotherapy, HIV, Burns, etc.11. A group of symptoms that sums up or constitute a disease
A. Syndrome
 B. SymptomsC. SignsD. Etiology* Symptoms are individual manifestation of a certain disease. For example, In Tourettesyndrome, patient will manifest TICS, but this alone is not enough to diagnose the patientas other diseases has the same tic manifestation. Syndrome means COLLECTION of thesesymptoms that occurs together to characterize a certain disease. Tics with coprolalia,echolalia, palilalia, choreas or other movement disorders are characteristics of TOURETTESYNDROME.12. A woman undergoing radiation therapy developed redness and burning of the skinaround the best. This is best classified as what type of disease?A. NeoplasticB. TraumaticC. Nosocomial
D. Iatrogenic

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