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PRINTER - imprimante - cours 18

PRINTER - imprimante - cours 18

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Published by FOUAD EL BRAHMI
cours sur les imprimantes
maintenance informatique
cours sur les imprimantes
maintenance informatique

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Published by: FOUAD EL BRAHMI on Jul 10, 2008
Copyright:Public Domain

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09/20/2012

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I
n many instances, you may desire a permanent copy of a computer’s output. The leadinghard copy output device is the character (letters, numbers, and graphic images) printer.This definition distinguishes the
character printer
(generally referred to simply as the printer) from the other hard copy output device referred to as an
X-Y plotter
. Plotters aretypically used to create complex graphics and drawings.Modern character printers, such as the one depicted in Figure 1, evolved from earlier type-writertechnology.Manydifferentmechanismshavebeenemployedtoimprintcharactersona page. The earliest methods used with computer printers were simply adaptations of other  print mechanisms used with typewriters and teletypewriters. These included print hammers(with characters carved on their faces) like those found in typical electric typewriters. Inearlycomputersystems,typewriterswereofteninterfacedtothecomputer,toprovidepaper copies of the output. Another adaptation from typewriter technology was the use of IBM’sgolf-ball printhead, borrowed from the company’s popular Selectric typewriters.
PRINTER CHARACTERISTICS
Ascomputersystemsandtheirapplica-tions diversified, a wide variety of  printer systems were developed ex- pressly to meet the expanding needsdictated by modern computers. Newer  printing methods—such as those usedin dot-matrix, ink-jet, and laser print-ers, have yielded much faster andhigher-quality printing capabilitiesthan ever before.Along with the diversity of printer sys-temscamevariousmethodsofclassify-ing printers. Character printers can beclassified by their method of placingcharacters on a page (
impact
or 
non-impact
), their speed of printing (
low
and
highspeeds
),andthequalityofthecharacterstheyproduce(
fully-formed,letter quality
,
near-letter quality
, or 
dot-matrix
).
HOW PRINTERS WORK 1
INTRODUCTION
H
OW 
P
RINTERS
ORK 
Figure 1: Typical Character Printer
 
PRINTING METHODS
Thefirstmethodofdifferentiatingamongprintersinvolvesclassifyingthembyhowtheyde-liver ink to the page. Basically, the printer can produce the character by causing the printmechanism,oritsinkribbon,tomakeaphysicalimpacttheuponpage.Printersthatoperatein this manner are referred to as
impact printers
.The other printing methodology delivers ink to the page without the print mechanism mak-ingcontactwiththepage.Printersthatproducecharactersinthismannerareknownas
non-impact printers
.
Impact Printers
The print mechanism may have the image of the character carved on its face, or it may bemade up of a group of small print wires, arranged in a matrix pattern. In this case, the printmechanism is used to create thecharacter by printing a pattern of dots resembling it.Generally, the quality—and there-fore, the readability—of a fully-formedcharacter,isbetterthanthatof a dot-matrix character. How-ever, dot-matrix printers tend to beless expensive than their fully-formed character counterparts. Ineither case, the majority of the printers in use today are of the im- pact variety. Figure 2 depicts bothfully-formed and dot-matrix typecharacters.
Non-Impact Printers
Several non-impact methods of printing are used in computer printers.
HOW PRINTERS WORK 2
Figure 2: Fully-formed and Dot-Matrix Type Characters
Older non-impact printers relied on special
heat-sensitive
or 
chemically reactivepaper
toformcharactersonthepage.Newermethodsofnon-impactprintinguseink droplets, squirted from a jet-nozzle device or a combination of laser/xerographic print technologies, to place characters on a page.Impactprintersplacecharactersonthepagebycausingahammerdevicetostrikeaninked ribbon. The ribbon, in turn, strikes the printing surface (paper).
 
In general, non-impact printers are less mechanical than impact counterparts. Therefore,thesetypesofprinterstendtobemoredependable.Non-impactprintersalsotendtobeveryquiet and faster than comparable impact printers. The major disadvantage of non-impact printers, however is their inability to produce
carbon copies
. Non-impact printers tend tooccupy the extreme ends of the printer price range. Most of the less expensive printers arenon-impact, as are most of the very expensive high-speed printers.
CHARACTER TYPES
Thequalityoffully-formedcharactersis excellent.However,creativechoices inprintfontsand sizes tend to be somewhat limited. To change the size or shape of a character, you mustchange the print mechanism. Conversely, the flexibility of using dots to create charactersmeans that the shape of the characters can be altered as the document is being created. Thequality of dot-matrix characters runs from extremely poor to extremely good, depending onthe print mechanism.
Fully-Formed Characters
The first, fully-formed impact print mecha-nism devised for computer printers was the
daisy wheel
, depicted in Figure 3. Intro-duced by Diablo, the daisy wheel containedan embossed character on each petal. Thecenter hub rotated until the correct character faced the print area. Then a single hammer struck the petal, which struck the ribbon,which, in turn, struck the paper. The daisywheel could easily be interchanged withotherdaisywheelscontainingdifferentfonts.The original daisy wheels were metal, butnewer models are plastic and correspond-ingly lighter, faster, and more energy-efficient.All the fully-formed impact printing mecha-nismsdiscussedsofarprintonecharacteratatime. Of the methods discussed, the daisywheel is by far the fastest. However, for higher-speed letter-quality printing, charac-ters must be printed a line at a time. This re-quires a line printer.
HOW PRINTERS WORK 3
Basically,twomethodsexistforcreatingcharactersonapage.Onemethodproducesa character that is fully shaped and fully filled-in. This type of character is called afully-formedcharacter.Theothermethodinvolvesplacingdotsonthepageinstrate-gicpatternstofooltheeyeintoseeingacharacter.Thistypeofcharacterisreferredtoas a dot-matrix character.
Figure 3: The Daisy Wheel

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