Socrates, Ma. Celine Anastasia P.2007-50486Political Science 145Alexander Magno
International Organizations: Global Governance, Global Democracy, Norm-Construction and the problem of Global Accountability
The global spread of democracy and the changing nature of the internationalsystem in the post-Cold War era have been attributed to many factors. Among these,and probably one of the most important, is the emergence of international organizationsin a global system that has become increasingly interconnected because of the process ofglobalization. Although the term was originally coined to refer to economic processes,“globalization” now encompasses a broader scope. It permeates the social, cultural, andpolitical spheres. Of course, globalization
is not an active entity. The manner inwhich it surpasses national boundaries to seep through practically all spheres of life isnaturally done through active agents.One principal agent (and as I’ve said, probably one of the most important) inwhich “interconnection” happens are international organizations (IOs), basicallyreferring to organizations that are not state-based, and whose goals are, similarly, notconfined to any particular nation-state. International organizations are sub-groupedinto international non-governmental organizations (INGOs), and intergovernmentalorganizations (IGOs). The basic difference between the two is that the former isindependent of any government, while the latter, though still not based on any
government, is composed of governments.From the materials I have studied, the literature on International Organizations islargely concentrated, forgive the pun, on basically four main issues, which this paperintends to assess and synthesize. Three of these issues are concerned with the impact ofIOs in general: global governance, global democracy, and norm-construction. The lastissue is concerned with the problem of global accountability.
The role of IOs in global governance
Global governance is defined by the 1995 Commission on Global Governance as“the sum of the many ways in which individuals and institutions, private and public,manage their common affairs. It is a continuing process through which conflicting ordiverse interests may be accommodated and cooperative action may be taken.”Scholars such as Barkin (2006) have studied the development of theory to aid inunderstanding the emergence and persistence of IOs and other global institutions.Karns and Mingst (2010), and Diehl (2005) argue the need for new forms of governancein the international system, largely because of the emergence of problems with a globaland multilevel scope such as global warming, transnational terrorism, pandemics, andthe meltdown of financial markets in 2008. These problems transcend territorial