Network-management systems and agents communicate using messages. SNMPv1supports five different types of messages:
GetRequest, SetRequest, GetNextRequest,GetResponse,
A single SNMP message is referred to as a Protocol Data Unit(PDU). These messages are constructed using Abstract Syntax Notation One (ASN.1)and translated into binary format using Basic Encoding Rules (BER). Each message typehas a different purpose:
is typically used by the network-management system to retrieve one or morevalues from an agent.
is used by the network-management system to set the values within a device.
is used by the network-management system to retrieve the next value ina table or a list within an agent.
informs the management station of the results of a
by returning an error indication and a list of variable/value bindings.
messages are sent from agents to managers.
messages are unsolicited (themanager does not issue a request message) and may indicate a warning or error conditionor otherwise notify the manager about the agent’s state. In essence,
messagesprovide an immediate notification for an event that might only be discovered duringinfrequent polling.
SNMP runs on a multitude of devices and operating systems, including, but not limitedto,
core network devices (routers, switches, hubs, bridges, and wireless network access points)
consumer broadband network devices (cable modems and DSL modems)
consumer electronic devices (cameras and image scanners)
networked office equipment (printers, copiers, and FAX machines)
network and systems management/diagnostic frameworks (network sniffers andnetwork analyzers)
Uninterruptible Power Supplies (UPS)
networked medical equipment (imaging units and oscilloscopes)
manufacturing and processing equipmentThe SNMP protocol enables network and system administrators to remotely monitor andconfigure devices on their network, such as routers, switches, hubs, and servers. Forexample, if a system administrator wants to know how much traffic is flowing through anetwork device, she might poll the device using SNMP. Once the data is pulled from therouter or switch, it can be interpreted in a number of different ways. Network trafficthroughput is not the only thing you can monitor using SNMP. It is also used to monitor