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Symptoms of Diabetes

Symptoms of Diabetes

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Published by: ankushbest on Oct 08, 2010
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Biology Project
By – Sumedha SharmaPrinted By:-
Kids Club
History and Statistic
Diabetes is not a newly born disease, it has been with human race from longback but, we came to knew about it in 1552 B.C. Since this period, many of Greek as well French physicians had worked on itand made us aware of the nature of disease, organsresponsible for it etc. In 1870s, a French physicianhad discovered a link between Diabetes and dietintake, and an idea to formulate individual diet plancame into picture.Diabetic diet was formulated with inclusion of milk,oats and other fiber containing foods in 1900-1915.Function of insulin, its nature, along with its usestarted from 1920 -1923, discovered by Dr. Banting,Prof. Macleod and Dr .Collip, who were awarded aNoble prize. In the decade of 1940, it has been discovered that different organslike kidney and skin are also affected if diabetes is creeping from a long term. Amajor turn in this research was in the year 1955, when the oral hypogycemicdrugs had been manufactured.Diabetes was recognized with complete details and its types (Type 1and Type 2diabetes - that is insulin dependent and non insulin dependent) in the year, 1959.As we know this is one of the old diseases, existing in many individuals and stillon rising charts. Hence, scientists are continuously working to relieve us from it,by discovering the relevant drugs and making new researches.According to W.H.O estimates, by 2025 total 300 million of the worldwidepopulation will be affected by diabetes. For every 21 seconds, someone isdiagnosed with diabetes, an estimation given by American Diabetes Association.And, there are 20.8 million diabetics in US at present, which is roughlyestimated as 7% of US population, out of this figure about 6.2 millions areunaware of the diabetes existence in there life.
Symptoms of Diabetes
In both types of diabetes, signs and symptoms are more likely to be similar asthe blood sugar is high, either due to less or no production of insulin, or insulinresistance. In any case, if there is inadequate glucose in the cells, it is identifiablethrough certain signs and symptoms. These symptoms are quickly relieved oncethe Diabetes is treated and also reduce the chances of developing serious healthproblems.Diabetes Type 1:
Universal Blue Symbolof Diabetes
Biology Project
By – Sumedha SharmaPrinted By:-
Kids Club
In type 1, the pancreas stop producing insulin due to autuimmune response orpossibly viral attack on pancreas. In absence of insulin, body cells don’t get therequired glucose for producing ATP (Adenosin Triphosphate) units whichresults into primary symptom in the form of nausea and vomiting. In later stage,which leads to ketoacidosis, the body starts breaking down the muscle tissue andfat for producing energy hence, causing fast weight loss. Dehydration is alsousually observed due to electrolyte disturbance. In advanced stages, coma anddeath is witnessed.Diabetes Type 2:
Increased fatigue : Due to inefficiency of the cell to metabolize glucose,reserve fat of body is metabolized to gain energy. When fat is brokendown in the body, it uses more energy as compared to glucose, hencebody goes in negative calorie effect, which results in fatigue.
Polydipsia : As the concentration of glucose increases in the blood, brainreceives signal for diluting it and, in its counteraction we feel thirsty.
Polyuria: Increase in urine production is due to excess glucose present inbody. Body gets rid of the extra sugar in the blood by excreting it throughurine. This leads to dehydration because along with the sugar, a largeamount of water is excreted out of the body.
Polyphegia : The hormone insulin is also responsible for stimulatinghunger. In order to cope up with high sugar levels in blood, body producesinsulin which leads to increased hunger.
Weight flactuation : Factors like loss of water (polyuria), glucosuria ,metabolism of body fat and protein may lead to weight loss. Few casesmay show weight gain due to increased appetite.
Blurry vision : Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome is thecondition when body fluid is pulled out of tissues including lenses of theeye, which affects its ability to focus, resulting blurry vision.
Irritability : It is a sign of high blood sugar because of the inefficientglucose supply to the brain and other body organs, which makes us feeltired and uneasy.
Infections : The body gives few signals whenever there is fluctuation inblood sugar (due to suppression of immune system) by frequent skininfections like fungal or bacterial or UTI (urinary tract infection).
Poor wound healing : High blood sugar resists the flourishing of WBC,(white blood cell) which are responsible for body immune system. Whenthese cells do not function accordingly, wound healing is not at good pace.Secondly, long standing diabetes leads to thickening of blood vesselswhich affect proper circulation of blood in different body parts.
Biology Project
By – Sumedha SharmaPrinted By:-
Kids Club
What Causes Diabetes
The precise Etiology of most cases of diabetes is uncertain, although certaincontributing factors are as follows:Type 1 diabetesType 1 Diabetes is autoimmune diseasethat affects 0.3% on average. It is result of destruction of beta cells due to aggressivenature of cells present in the body.Researchers believe that some of theEtiology and Risk factors which maytrigger type 1 diabetes may be genetic,poor diet (malnutrition) and environment(virus affecting pancreas). Secondly, inmost of the cases, diabetes occurs becausethere is abnormal secretion of somehormones in blood which act as antagonists to insulin. Example- Adrenocorticalhormone, Adrenaline hormone and Thyroid hormone.Type 2 diabetesType 2 Diabetes is also called non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. It occurs when the bodyproduces enough insulin but cannot utilize iteffectively. This type of diabetes usuallydevelops in middle age. A general observationsays that about 90-95 % of people sufferingwith diabetes are type 2; about 80 percent areoverweight. It is more common among peoplewho are older; obese; have a family history of diabetes; have had gestational diabetes. Thereare number of risk factors found to be responsible for type 2 diabetes like, themore the Etiology and Risk factors carried by an individual, the higher the risk for developing diabetes.
Following are the Causes of Diabetes
Hereditary or Inherited Traits : It is strongly believed that due to somegenes which passes from one generation to another, a person can inheritdiabetes. It depends upon closeness of blood relationship as mother isdiabetic, the risk is 2 to 3%, father is diabetic, the risk is more than theprevious case and if both the parents are diabetic, the child has muchgreater risk for diabetes.

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