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Splints

Splints

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Published by Edson Dadivas
report ko mga tsong
report ko mga tsong

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Published by: Edson Dadivas on Oct 08, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/29/2013

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SPLINTS ANDTRACTION
 
INTRODUCTION
Traction produces a reduction through the surrounding soft parts, which align the fragments by their tension
When the shaft of a long bone is fractured the elastic retraction of muscles surrounding the bone tends toproduce over-riding of the fragments
This tendency is greater when
 ±
The muscles are powerful and long bellied as in the thigh
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When the fracture is imperfectly immobilised, so that there is pain and therefore muscle spam
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When the fracture is mechanically unstable, because the fragments are not in apposition or becausethe fracture line is oblique
Continuous traction generated by weights and pulleys, in addition to causing reduction of a deformity,will also produce a relative fixation of the fragments by the rigidity conferred by the surrounding softtissue structures when under tension
It also enables maintenance of alignment, while at the same time it is possible to devise apparatus, whichpermit joint movement
Traction may be applied through traction tapes attached to skin by adhesives or by direct pull bytransfixing pins through or onto the skeleton
Traction must always be apposed by counter traction or the pull exerted against a fixed object, otherwiseit merely pulls the patient down or off the bed
Traction requires constant care and vigilance and is costly in terms of the length of hospital stay and allthe hazards of prolonged bed rest must be considered when traction is used :
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Thromboembolism
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Decubiti
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Pneumonia
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Atelectasis
Excessive traction which leads to distraction of the fracture is undesirable
Once the fracture is reduced a decreasing amount of weight is required to maintain a reduction once themuscle stretch reflex has been overcome and the fracture immobilised
For a femoral fracture no more than 10 lbs should be used and for fractures of the tibia and upper limbless weight is required
 
Traction
Skin Traction
Traction is applied to the skeleton through itsattached soft tissue and in the adult should beused only as a temporary measureSkin is designed to bear compression forces andnot shear If much more than 8 lbs is applied for any lengthof time, it results in superficial layers of skinpulled off Other difficulties such as migration of thebandage may occur with lower weights

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