Ergonomics is a relatively new branch of science which celebratedits 50th anniversary in 1999, but relies on research carried out in manyother older, established scientific areas, such as engineering, physiologyand psychology.It originated in World War 2, when scientists designed advancednew and potentially improved systems without fully considering the people who would be using them. It gradually became clear that systemsand products would have to be designed to take account of many humanand environmental factors if they are to be used safely and effectively.This awareness of people’s requirements resulted in the discipline of ergonomics.The ergonomics is divided broadly into three domains:
deals with the human body's responses to physicaland physiological loads. Relevant topics include manual materialshandling, workstation layout, job demands, and risk factors such asrepetition, vibration, force and awkward/static posture as they relate tomusculoskeletal disorders.
also known as engineering psychology, concernsmental processes such as perception, attention, cognition, motor control,and memory storage and retrieval as they affect interactions amonghumans and other elements of a system. Relevant topics include mentalworkload, vigilance, decision-making, skilled performance, human error,human-computer interaction, and training.
or macro ergonomics, is concerned with theoptimization of socio technical systems, including their organizationalstructures, policies, and processes. Relevant topics include shift work,scheduling, job satisfaction, motivational theory, supervision, teamwork,telework and ethics.