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Ergonamics Docfinal

Ergonamics Docfinal

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Published by: jibalaji on Jul 10, 2008
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12/23/2011

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ACKNOWLEGEMENT
We the working group with immense pleasure andopportunity would like to thank Prof. Mr. AJIT KURVE presently the PRODUCTIVITY AND QUALITYMANAGEMENT lecturer in our college for giving us such a practical project in the subject. By doing this project we are ableto grab the knowledge ERGONOMIC used in office and e.t.c.Behind every success there is a source of inspiration. Inour case Prof. Mr. AJIT KURVE, whose inspiration and constantencouragement led us to complete this project.
 
Thanking You,The Working Group.
GROUP MEMBERS;
BALAJI.PILLAI (20)VAIBHAV.HINGE (10)RAVI.GAWDA (08)ABHIJIT.AMBEKAR (01)
 
Ergonomics as a concept
The term ergonomics was coined from the Greek words ergon(meaning "work") and nomos (meaning "rules).So the literal meaning is"the rules of work," Ergonomics is the science of fitting the work-placeconditions and job demands to the capabilities of the working population.The goal of ergonomics is to make the work place more comfortable andto improve both health and productivity. To meet these goals, thecapabilities and limitations of workers and their tools, equipment andfurniture are considered in conjunction with how they relate to particular tasks. Most people have heard of ergonomics and think it is something todo with seating or with the design of car controls and instruments. Itis...but it is much more! Ergonomics is the application of scientificinformation concerning humans to the design of objects, systems andenvironment for human use. Ergonomics comes into everything whichinvolves people. Work systems, sports and leisure, health and safetyshould all embody ergonomics principles if well designed.
DEFINITION
According to International Labor Organization, ergonomics is theapplication of the human biological sciences in conjunction withengineering sciences to the worker and his working environment, so as toobtain maximum satisfaction for the worker and at the same time enhance productivity.
HISTORY
Later in the 19th century, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth expandedTaylor's methods of “SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT” in the early 1900sto develop "Time and Motion Studies". They aimed to improve efficiency by eliminating unnecessary steps and actions. By applying this approach,the Gilbreths reduced the number of motions in bricklaying from 18 to4.5, allowing bricklayers to increase their productivity from 120 to 350 bricks per hour.In the decades since the war, ergonomics has continued to flourishand diversify. The Space Age created new human factors issues such asweightlessness and extreme G-forces. How far could environments inspace be tolerated, and what effects would they have on the mind and body? The dawn of the Information Age has resulted in the newergonomics field of human-computer interaction (HCI).
 
Ergonomics is a relatively new branch of science which celebratedits 50th anniversary in 1999, but relies on research carried out in manyother older, established scientific areas, such as engineering, physiologyand psychology.It originated in World War 2, when scientists designed advancednew and potentially improved systems without fully considering the people who would be using them. It gradually became clear that systemsand products would have to be designed to take account of many humanand environmental factors if they are to be used safely and effectively.This awareness of people’s requirements resulted in the discipline of ergonomics.The ergonomics is divided broadly into three domains:
Physical ergonomics,
deals with the human body's responses to physicaland physiological loads. Relevant topics include manual materialshandling, workstation layout, job demands, and risk factors such asrepetition, vibration, force and awkward/static posture as they relate tomusculoskeletal disorders. 
Cognitive ergonomics,
also known as engineering psychology, concernsmental processes such as perception, attention, cognition, motor control,and memory storage and retrieval as they affect interactions amonghumans and other elements of a system. Relevant topics include mentalworkload, vigilance, decision-making, skilled performance, human error,human-computer interaction, and training.
Organizational ergonomics,
or macro ergonomics, is concerned with theoptimization of socio technical systems, including their organizationalstructures, policies, and processes. Relevant topics include shift work,scheduling, job satisfaction, motivational theory, supervision, teamwork,telework and ethics.

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