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Table Of Contents

Introduction, P and NP
1.1 Computational Problems
1.2 P and NP
1.3 NP-completeness
1.3.1 Reductions
1.3.2 NP-completeness
1.3.3 An NP-complete problem
1.3.4 The Problem SAT
1.4 Diagonalization
1.5 References
Space-Bounded Complexity Classes
2.1 Space-Bounded Complexity Classes
2.2 Reductions in NL
2.3 NL Completeness
2.4 Savitch’s Theorem
2.5 Undirected Connectivity
2.6 Randomized Log-space
2.7.1 A simpler problem first
2.7.2 Finding r
The Polynomial Hierarchy
3.1 Stacks of quantifiers
3.2 The hierarchy
3.3 An alternate characterization
3.5 References
Circuits
4.1 Circuits
4.2 Relation to other complexity classes
4.3 References
Probabilistic Complexity Classes
5.1 Probabilistic complexity classes
5.2 Relations between complexity classes
5.3 BPP⊆ Σ2
5.4 References
A Probabilistic Algorithm
6.1 Branching Programs
6.2 Testing Equivalence
6.3 The Schwartz-Zippel Lemma
6.4 References
Unique-SAT
7.1 The Valiant-Vazirani Reduction
7.2 References
8.3 An approximate comparison procedure
8.4 Constructing a-comp
8.5 The proof of the Leftover Hash Lemma
8.6 Approximate Sampling
8.7 References
9.1 The Permanent Problem
9.2 Worst-case to Average-case Equivalence
9.3 References
10.1 Average-case Complexity in PSPACE and EXP for 7/8
10.2 Coding-Theoretic Perspective
10.3 Average-case Complexity in PSPACE and EXP for 1/2
10.4 References
11.1 The XOR Lemma
11.2 References
12.1 Distributional Problems
12.2 DistNP
12.3 Reductions
12.4 Polynomial-Time on Average
12.5 Existence of Complete Problems
12.6 Polynomial-Time Samplability
12.7 References
Interactive Proofs
13.1 Interactive Proofs
13.1.1 NP+ Interaction = NP
13.1.2 NP + Randomness
13.2 IP
13.3 An Example: Graph Non-Isomorphism
13.4 Random Self-Reductions
13.5 References
14.2 A Proof System for #SAT
14.3 A Proof System for QBF
14.3.1 PSPACE-Complete Language: TQBF
14.3.2 Arithmetization of TQBF
14.3.3 The Interactive Protocol
14.3.4 Analysis
Introduction to PCP
15.1 Probabilistically Checkable Proofs
15.2 PCP and MAX-3SAT
15.2.1 Approximability
15.2.2 Inapproximability
15.2.3 Tighter result
15.3 Max Clique
15.3.1 Approximability
15.3.2 Inapproximability
15.4 References
H˚astad’s Proof System
16.1 H˚astad’s verifier
16.2 Applications to hardness of approximation
16.3 From the PCP theorem to Raz’s verifier
16.4 References
Linearity Test
17.1 Fourier analysis of Boolean functions
17.2 Using Fourier analysis to test linearity
17.3 Testing code words for the Long Code
17.3.1 Pre-H˚astad verification
17.3.2 The Long Code test
17.4 References
18.2 H˚astad’s verifier
Circuit Lower Bounds for Parity
19.1 Circuit Lower Bounds for PARITY
19.2 Proof of Circuit Lower Bounds for PARITY using Poly-
19.3 Approximating OR
19.4 References
20.1 Random Restrictions
20.2 H˚astad’s Result
20.3 References
Proof Complexity
21.1 Resolution Proof System
21.2 Width of a Resolution Proof
21.3 References
22.1 Width and Proof Complexity
22.1.1 The Main Theorem
22.1.2 Proof of the technical lemmas
22.2 Width Lower Bounds
22.2.1 The Setting
22.2.2 Matching and Satisfiability
22.2.3 Putting them together
22.3 References
23.1 ProbabilisticAlgorithms versus Deterministic Algorithms
23.1.1 A trivial deterministic simulation
23.1.2 Exponential gaps between randomized and deterministic proce- dures
23.2 De-randomization Under Complexity Assumptions
23.2.1 Formal Definitions of Complexity Measures andComplexity Classes
23.2.2 Hardness versus Randomness
23.3 Pseudorandom Generators
23.4 The two main theorems
23.4.1 The Nisan-Wigderson Theorem
23.4.2 Worst-case to Average-case Reduction
The Nisan-Wigderson Generator
24.1 The Nisan-Wigderson Construction
24.1.1 Impredictability versus Pseudorandomness
24.1.2 Combinatorial Designs
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Published by Chim Kudo

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Published by: Chim Kudo on Oct 09, 2010
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