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Improvement Dynamic Source Routing Protocol by Localization for Ad hoc Networks

Improvement Dynamic Source Routing Protocol by Localization for Ad hoc Networks

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract-Ad hoc networks are temporary networks with a dynamic topology which don t have any established infrastructure or centralized administration. Consequently, in recent years many researchers have focused on these networks. These networks need efficient routing protocols in terms of Quality of Services (QOS) metrics. Ad hoc networks suffer from frequent and rapid topology changes that cause many challenges in their routing. Most of the routing protocols like this proposed protocol try to find a route between source and destination nodes and when any route is expired, a new route would be formed. Rapid route reconstruction may cause the network inefficiency. Therefore, we have to decrease this processes. The proposed protocol as DSR routing protocol build one routes between source and destination but create backup routes during the route reply process, route maintenance process and use local recovery process in order to improve the data transfer and attended to QOS. The protocol performance is demonstrated by using the simulation results obtain from the global mobile simulation software (Glomosim). The experimental results show that this protocol can decrease the packet loss ratio and increase data transfer rather than DSR that, it is useful for the applications that need a high level of reliability.

Keywords; Protocol, Routing, Local Recovery, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
Abstract-Ad hoc networks are temporary networks with a dynamic topology which don t have any established infrastructure or centralized administration. Consequently, in recent years many researchers have focused on these networks. These networks need efficient routing protocols in terms of Quality of Services (QOS) metrics. Ad hoc networks suffer from frequent and rapid topology changes that cause many challenges in their routing. Most of the routing protocols like this proposed protocol try to find a route between source and destination nodes and when any route is expired, a new route would be formed. Rapid route reconstruction may cause the network inefficiency. Therefore, we have to decrease this processes. The proposed protocol as DSR routing protocol build one routes between source and destination but create backup routes during the route reply process, route maintenance process and use local recovery process in order to improve the data transfer and attended to QOS. The protocol performance is demonstrated by using the simulation results obtain from the global mobile simulation software (Glomosim). The experimental results show that this protocol can decrease the packet loss ratio and increase data transfer rather than DSR that, it is useful for the applications that need a high level of reliability.

Keywords; Protocol, Routing, Local Recovery, Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

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Improvement Dynamic Source Routing Protocol byLocalization for Ad hoc Networks
Mehdi Khazaei
 
Kermanshah
 
University of Technology
 
Information Technology Engineering Group
 
Kermanshah, Iran
 
khazaei84@gmail.com
 
 Abstract
-
Ad hoc networks are temporary networks with adynamic topology which dont have any establishedinfrastructure or centralized administration. Consequently,
in
 recent years many researchers have focused on these networks.These networks need efficient routing protocols in terms of Quality of Services (
QOS
) metrics. Ad hoc networks suffer
fromfrequent and rapid topology changes that cause many challenges
in their routing. Most of the routing protocols like this
proposed
protocol
try to find a rou
te
between source and destination
nodes
and when
any route
 
is
 
expire
d
,
a new
route
 
would
 
beformed.
Rapid
 
route
 
reconstruction may
cause the network
inefficiency
. T
herefore
, we have to decrease this processes. Theproposed protocol
as
DSR
routing protocol
build one
 
routes
between source and destination
but
create backup
route
s duringthe route reply process, route maintenance process and
use local
recovery process in order to improve the data transfer andattended to
QOS
. The protocol performance is demonstrated byusing the simulation results obtain from the global mobile
simulation
 
software
 
(Glomosim).
The experimental results showthat this protocol can decrease the packet loss ratio and
increase
 data transfer rather than
DSR
 
that
, it is useful for thea
pplications that need a high level of reliability.
 
 Keywords; Protocol, Routing, Local Recovery, Mobile Ad-
 hoc Networks
 
I.
 
Introduction
 Routing in ad hoc networks is a very challenging issue dueto nodes mobility, dynamic topology, frequent link breakage,
limi
tation of nodes (memory, battery, bandwidth, andprocessing power), and limited transmission range of the nodeand lack of central point like base stations or servers. On theother hand, there are a lot of performance metrics and qualityservices which should be satisfied in an ad hoc network like
end
-
to
-end data throughput, average end-
to
-end data delay,packet loss ratio, Normalized Routing Load, Packet DeliveryRatio, and
route
optimality. Each protocol can satisfy some of these metrics and has some drawbacks in terms of othermetrics. Furthermore, due to the nature of ad hoc networks(distributed and cooperated routing), even for a fixed metric,each protocol can show a different performance with differentnetworks features like number of mobile nodes, mobility of nodes, pause time and. So by comparing between differentad hoc routing protocols we can extract very important
information
about the performance of these protocols in the
Different
 
situations.
In the other hands, the nodes mobility and
the pr
obability of links failure may cause the fault tolerance
 Issues more important for routing problem in ad hoc
network 
therefore, each routing protocol should be fault t
olerant
in
probable route failures
 
[1]
.Routing protocols in conventional wired networks areusually based upon either distance vector or link state
routing
algorithms as a DSDV [2], CGSR [2] and FSR
[2
]. Thesealgorithms require periodic routing advertisements to bebroadcast by each router. These conventional routingalgorithms are clearly not efficient for type of dynamicchanges which may occur in an ad-hoc network [2, 3
].
A newclass of on-demand routing protocols e.g.,
DSR
[4
,
5], TORA[2], AODV [6, 7]) for mobile ad hoc networks has beendeveloped with
the
goal of minimizing the routing overhead.These Protocols reactively discover and maintain only theneeded routes, in contrast to proactive protocols (e.g., DSDV
[2
]) which maintain all routes regardless of their usage. Thekey characteristic of an on-demand protocol is the source-
in
itiated route discovery procedure. Whenever a traffic source
needs a route, it initiates a Route discovery process by sending
a route request for the destination (typically via a network-wide flood) and Waits for a route reply. Each route discovery
flood i
s Associated with significant latency and overhead. This
is particularly true for large networks. Therefore, for on-
demand routing to be effective, it is desirable to keep the route
discovery frequency low
 
[8]
.
Single route
routing allows the establishment of one
route
 
between a
 
source and single destination node. Because of node
mobility, the route may be broken frequently; therefore,having replacement
route
in cache memory to transmit datawill improve the fault tolerance
and
higher aggregate
bandwidth
in these networks. Beside
of 
this, by repairing thebroken routes locally, the number of route rediscoveryprocesses can be decreased. This paper improves the faulttolerance and increase reliability by obtain replace
ment
 
route
s
in RREP
1
and RRER
2
processe
s and local recovery
process
 
together. This optimization is done on the DSR
 
protocol
.The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In section
II
 t
he
DSR
protocol is explained. Section
III
deals with therelated works and Section
IV
describe the proposed protocolmechanism in detail. Performance evaluation by simulation ispresented in section V and concluding remarks are made in
section VI
.
1
Route reply
2
Route error
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 20101http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
II
.
 
Dynamic Source Routing
 
Protocol
(
DSR
)
DSR
is an on-demand routing protocol for ad hoc
networks. Like any source routing protocol, in DSR
 
the source
includes the full route in the packetsheader. The intermediatenodes use this to forward packets towards the destination andmaintain a route cache containing routes to other nodes. In
following
 
subsections
DSR
 
operation are
 
briefly described
 
[4
].
 A.
 
 Route discovery
 
If the source does not have a route to the destination in itsroute cache, it broadcasts a RREQ
3
message specifying thedestination node for which the route is requested. The RREQmessage includes a route record which specifies the sequenceof nodes traversed by the message. When an intermediatenode receives a RREQ, it checks to see if it is already in theRoute record. If it is, it drops the message. This is done toprevent routing loops. If the intermediate node had receivedthe RREQ before, then it also drops the message. Theintermediate node forwards the RREQ to the next hopaccording to the route specified in the header. When thedestination receives the RREQ, it sends back a route reply
message. If the destination has a route to the source in its route
cache, then it can send a RREP message a long this route.Otherwise, the RREP message can be sent along the reverse
route back to the source. Intermediate nodes may also use their
route cache to reply To RREQs. If an intermediate node has aroute to the destination in its cache, then it can append the
route to the route record in the RREQ, and send an RREP back 
to the source containing this route. This can help
limit
flooding of The RREQ. However, if the cached route is out-
of 
-
date
 
it can result in the source receiving stale routes
 
[4
].
 B.
 
 Route maintenance
 
When a node detects a broken link while trying to forwarda packet to the next hop, it sends a RERR message back to thesource containing the link in error. When an RERR message isreceived, all routes containing the link in error are deleted at
that node
 
[4
].
III
.
 
Related Works
 
Ad hoc routing protocols such as ADOV,
DSR
, DSDV and
OLSR have been investigated on the ad hoc networks in thepast few years. The investigations of the performance of theseprotocols on the ad hoc networks have produced many usefulresults. However, we have seen very limited findings of howthese Ad-hoc routing protocols perform on wireless ad hoc
networks
. Nonetheless, we can see many attempts atdeveloping routing protocols for ad hoc networks under the
different
deployment of ad hoc networks [8, 9 and 10]. In
following
 
are
 
brought
 
some of these attempts.
 SMR is
an
on demand routing protocol that usesmaximally disjoint routes to transmit data packets. Unlike
DSR
, intermediate nodes do not allow to send RREP packetsback to the source instead, only destination nodes reply to the
RREQ packets and selects maximally
-
disjoint routes [11].
 
MP
-
DSR
is a multi-
route
QOS aware extension to
DSR
. It
ocuses on a QOS
 
metric, end
-
to
-
end reliability. End
-
to
-
end
 
3
Route R
equest
Reliability
is defined as the probability of sending datasuccessfully from the source to the destination node within
a
time window. MP-
DSR
selects a set of routes that satisfy a
specific end
-
to
-
end reliability Requirement [12].
 MSR is attempts to minimize the end-
to
-end delay forsending a data from source to destination by using multi-
route
 
routing and intelligent traffic allocation [13].
 CHAMP is multi-
route
protocol that uses round-
robin
traffic allocation to keep routes fresh. It also employscooperative packet caching to improve fault tolerance andtakes advantage of temporal locality in routing, where a
dropped pac
et is a recently sent packet [9].
 The local recovery techniques have been used in somerouting protocols for route maintenance processes. Thistechnique aims to reduce the frequency
of 
 
RREQ
 
floodstriggered by nodes that
 
are located
 
in the broken routes
 
[14]
.SLR is one of these routing protocols. It modifies
DSR
,
using a new route recovery mechanism called bypass routing.Bypass routing utilizes both route caches and local errorrecovery techniques during failures to reduce the control
overhead [15].
 LRR is also another routing protocol that uses localrecovery techniques. In this protocol the information of next-
to
-next (NN) node is stored at each intermediate node along
the route. After detecting a broken link by an upstream node, it
sends out the non-
pro
pagating requests to find another nodewhich is in contact with itself and the NN node on the route;therefore the routes can be repaired locally in the shortest
possible time [16].
 MR
FT
protocol improves fault tolerance in
DSR
and SMRprotocols. To achieve the goal of decreasing the packet lossratio and increasing fault-
tolerance,
MR
FT
uses both multi-
route
 
and local recovery techniques together
 
[17
].
IV
.
 
T
he
P
roposed
P
rotocol
 This paper proposes
IM
-
DSR
4
protocol to improve fault
tolerance
and QOS
 
in
DSR
 
protocol
. To achieve the goal of decreasing the packet loss ratio and increasing fault-
tolerance,IM
-
DSR
uses local recovery techniques and alternate routeduring route reply and route maintenance th
at
reliability in thenetwork would be increased.
IM
-
DSR
 
modi
fying the routediscovery, route reply and route maintenance processes in
DSR
. The
IM
-
DSR
protocol is
including
 
route
discovery,
route reply, route maintenance and local recovery
processesthat discussed in the following subsection.
 
 A.
 
 Route Discovery Proce
ss
 
IM
-
DSR
is an on demand routing protocol that buildssingle route using request/reply cycles. When the source nodeneeds to send data to the destination but no route informationis known, it floods RREQ packets over the entire network.When an intermediate node receives a RREQ that is not a
duplicate, it appends its ID to the packet and rebroadcasts it. InIM
-
DSR
all of the duplicate RREQs that are received by
intermediate
 
nodes are dropped.
 
In
IM
-
DSR, intermediate
4
Improvement
-
DSR
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 20102http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Nodes
 
are
 
al
lowed to send RREPs back to the source evenwhen they have route information to the destination in their
route caches.
 B.
 
 Route Reply Process
 
When receiving the first RREQ, the destination sends aRREP back to the source. After that, the destination
node
con
sumes
other RREQs. The Route-Number of the RREP is
one
.After receiving RREP packet by the intermediate nodes, if it has not
route
with same length to destination node, theystore the
route
s in their route caches.
The
Route-Number of this routes are zero and used in route maintenance process forimproving the break routes also sending data if there is not
main route.
 Look at
the
Fig. 1, suppose that node (H) sends the RREPto the source node (A), a
route
is found and sent to node (A)by RREP is A-C-D-G-F-H. Now, suppose that the RREP isreceived by node (C) which is middle node. Node (C) s
aves
the
route
s
to destination (H
)
which is C
-D-G-F-H
, additionally
 node (C) save C-D, C-D-G and C-D-G-F
route
s in the route
caches.
 When the source node receive the RREP, it will store the
route
 
and use that
 
for transmit data
.
C.
 
 Route Maintenance and Local Recovery Processes
 
During a transmission session, a problem such as node
mobility, or low battery power might be raised, which can lead
to break an existing route and lose route connectivity. Thismay force a route rediscovery process by flooding RREQsover the network. To avoid this phenomenon,
IM
-
DSR
 
uses
following mechanism that one of them is local recoverytechniques. Using local recovery techniques is very useful
despite they consume the limited power of each nodes.
 Suppose that a node finds a broken link, while sending apacket. At first, it seeks the route cache and deletes all
route
s
include the broken link, and then according to kind of the
packet one of the following items is done:
 If transitional packet would be a RREQ, the node would
not send RRER to the source node.
 
If transitional packet would be a RREP, send RRER to thenode which makes the RREP.
 
Figure
1
.
Routes Structure in an Ad
-
hoc Network 
 
If transitional packet is a RRER, it would examine howmany times the packet would be saved. If it was
the firsttime
,
the
meaning is, the packet would be saved b
y
examining a route cache and finding
alternate route
. T
he
RRER is sent to destination through that route then theRRER is made and it will report the broken link to thesource of RRER. If it
were
not first
time
or if alternate
route
 
were
not in the route cache of node, the RRERwould be deleted and only a RRER would be sent to thesource node.
Ther
efore RRER is saved
only
for one time
by the
IM
-
DSR
 
protocol.
 If transitional packet would be data, it would examinehow many times the packet would be saved. If this timewere less than three, the data packet would be sent byexamining their route cache and alternate
route
then itwill send a RRER to the source node. If these times weremore than three or if alternate
route
was not in the route
cache of node the data packet would be deleted and only a
RRER would be sent to the source node. Therefore datap
acket is saved for three times by the IM
-
DSR
 
protocol.
 If very data packet passed the same
route
 
towards
destination node and they faced the broken link (whilesending), the node which recognized an error, for every datapacket send a RRER to the source node. In order to avoid thisitem every node before sending RRER to source node,examine this is a first RRER or not. If it was not send, a new
RRER send to source node.
 Every node which recognizes the broken link and makesthe RRER, examined the route cache in order to find alternate
route
and put it in the RRER, which the node that received theRRER, replaces the
route
in the RRER with the previous
invalid
route
 
in the route cache.
 
Fig. 2 shows this matter. The source node (A) sends data to
the
destination
node (H) through A-C-D-H
.
When
node (D
)
sends the data packet, it will find the failure in node (H). Byexamine the route cache, it chooses the alternate
route
D-G-F-H, hence, the data packet is sent to destination node (H
)
through this route, then RRER is made and it is sent to thenode (A). This packet includes the alternate
route
D-G-F-H
.
The node (A) receives the RRER and deletes A-C-D-H f 
rom
route cache and replaces A
-C-D-G-F-H.Every middle and source node which receives the RRER,examine those route in route cache which includes the brokenlink and should be deleted from cache and if packet included
alternate route
, exploited that and saved in route cache withnumber two. If in buffer, data packet waiting to send toward
alternate route
destination, it will send through that
route.Such
as the Fig. 2, while passing the RRER, node (C) adds C-D-G-F-H
to the route cache.
 If a node who detected a broken link cannot find any
alternate route
in its route cache, so it drops the data packetand sends a RERR without any repaired
route
to the source.After that, because of performing local recovery process bythe node that detects the broken link, the source node does nottrigger the rediscovery process immediately. After detectingthe broken link, node sends a RERR to the source and starts
the local recovery process simultaneously. To repair the route
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 20103http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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