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Steganalysis of Reversible Vertical Horizontal Data Hiding Technique

Steganalysis of Reversible Vertical Horizontal Data Hiding Technique

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract—This paper proposes a steganalysis scheme for detecting the reversible vertical horizontal (RVH) data hiding [1]. The RVH scheme was introduced in the IJCSIS International Journal Vol. 7, No. 3, March 2010. In the RVH data hiding, the message bits are embedded into cover-image by two embedding phases: the horizontal embedding procedure HEm and the vertical embedding procedure VEm. The pixel pairs belonging to the horizontally embeddable and vertically embeddable pixel pair domain are transformed to mark message bits. Through analysis, we detect out that, the two histograms of LSB scanning horizontally and vertically vary from a stego-image to the cover image. Based on this observation, we design a specific steganlytic method for attacking the RVH steganography. Experimental results show the detection accuracies of the steganography with various embedding rates are acceptable. The proposed technique can be applied in detecting the misuse of steganographic technology in malicious activities.

Keywords- Steganography, steganalysis, watermarking, cover image, stego image, payload, reversible data hiding.
Abstract—This paper proposes a steganalysis scheme for detecting the reversible vertical horizontal (RVH) data hiding [1]. The RVH scheme was introduced in the IJCSIS International Journal Vol. 7, No. 3, March 2010. In the RVH data hiding, the message bits are embedded into cover-image by two embedding phases: the horizontal embedding procedure HEm and the vertical embedding procedure VEm. The pixel pairs belonging to the horizontally embeddable and vertically embeddable pixel pair domain are transformed to mark message bits. Through analysis, we detect out that, the two histograms of LSB scanning horizontally and vertically vary from a stego-image to the cover image. Based on this observation, we design a specific steganlytic method for attacking the RVH steganography. Experimental results show the detection accuracies of the steganography with various embedding rates are acceptable. The proposed technique can be applied in detecting the misuse of steganographic technology in malicious activities.

Keywords- Steganography, steganalysis, watermarking, cover image, stego image, payload, reversible data hiding.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
Steganalysis of Reversible Vertical Horizontal DataHiding Technique
Thom Ho Thi Huong,
Faculty of Information Technology,Haiphong Private University,Haiphong, Vietnamthomhth@hpu.edu.vn
Canh Ho Van
Dept. of Professional Technique,Ministry of Public Security,Hanoi, Vietnamhovancanh@gmail.com
Tien Trinh Nhat
College of Technology,Vietnam National University,Hanoi, Vietnamtientn@vnu.edu.vn
 Abstract
 — 
This paper proposes a steganalysis scheme fordetecting the reversible vertical horizontal (RVH) data hiding [1].The RVH scheme was introduced in the IJCSIS InternationalJournal Vol. 7, No. 3, March 2010. In the RVH data hiding, themessage bits are embedded into cover-image by two embeddingphases: the horizontal embedding procedure HEm and thevertical embedding procedure VEm. The pixel pairs belonging tothe horizontally embeddable and vertically embeddable pixel pairdomain are transformed to mark message bits. Through analysis,we detect out that, the two histograms of LSB scanninghorizontally and vertically vary from a stego-image to the coverimage. Based on this observation, we design a specific steganlyticmethod for attacking the RVH steganography. Experimentalresults show the detection accuracies of the steganography withvarious embedding rates are acceptable. The proposed techniquecan be applied in detecting the misuse of steganographictechnology in malicious activities.
 Keywords-Steganography, steganalysis, watermarking, cover image, stego image, payload, reversible data hiding.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Steganography is [1, 3, 4, 5] is the art and science of concealed communication. The basic concept is to hide thevery existence of the secret message. Digital object such as atext, image, video, or audio segment can be used as the coverdata. To obtain acceptable hiding payload and keep fidelity of the stego-image, the LSB replacement techniques [2,4 or otherreferences] are popular and widely studied in the literature.These methods usually hide more data in image areas withhigher spatial variations. Reversible steganography [1,3-5] isone of the interesting branches of steganographic technology inwhich the original cover image can be reconstructed withoutany loss.Steganalysis is the counterpart of steganography, the goalof the steganalysis is to detect the hidden message,equivalently, to discriminate the stego object from the non-stego-object. The steganalysis techniques proposed in theliterature can be classified into two categories: the universalsteganalysis which is designed to detect the hidden messageembedded with various data embedding algorithms such as atechnique proposed in [6] is used to attack the LSBsteganography, and the specific steganalysis which is designedto attack a specific steganography technique such as asteganalytic method was presented in [2] for detecting stego-images using the method proposed in [3].In this paper, we proposed a steganalytic scheme to detectthe RVH watermarking scheme introduced in brief in theabstract. Our experimental results show the feasibility of theproposed method. It is useful in detecting malicious activitieson stego-images and also suggests a design consideration forfuture development of steganographic techniques. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, wepresent again the RVH scheme in brief. Section III describesthe proposed steganalytic method. Experimental results aregiven in section IV, and conclusions are made finally inSection V.II.
 
R
EVIEW OF THE
RVH
DATA HIDING SCHEME
 In the steganographic method proposed in [1] used themultiple embedding strategies to improve the image qualityand the embedding capacity. Basically, this method embedseach message bit b of the secret bit stream into each grayscalecover pixel pair of a grayscale cover image in raster scan order.This scheme includes two main stages, namely, the horizontalembedding procedure HEm and the vertical embeddingprocedure VEm. For the HEm procedure, the input image ishorizontally scanned in raster scan order (i.e., from left to rightand top to bottom) to gather two neighboring pixels x and yinto a cover pixel pair (x, y). If y is an odd value, then the coverpixel pair (x, y) is defined as a horizontally embeddable pixelpair. Otherwise, the cover pixel pair (x, y) is defined as ahorizontally non-embeddable pixel pair. For the VEmprocedure, the input image is vertically scanned in raster scanorder to group two neighboring pixels u and v into a pixel pair(u, v). If v is an even value, then the pixel pair (u, v) is definedas a vertically embeddable pixel pair. Otherwise, the pixel pair(u, v) is defined as a vertically non-embeddable pixel.The secret bit sequence S is divided into two subsequenceS1 and S2. The bit stream B1 is created by concatenating thesecret subsequence S1 and the auxiliary data bit stream A1(i.e., B1=S1||A1). Similarly, the bit stream B2= S2||A2. Thegeneration of A1 and A2 will be described latter. The overviewof the RVH embedding process is shown in Fig. 1.
7http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
Fig. 1. Embedding phase of RVH steganographic system [1]
Firstly, the bit sequence B1 is horizontally embedded intoO by using the HEm procedure to obtain the output image Tsized H x W pixels. Secondly, the compressed location mapCM1 whose length is LC1 (will be described later), isembedded in to T by using the least significant bit (LSB)replacement technique to obtain the output image U with sizeof H x W pixels. Thirdly, the bit sequence B2 is verticallyembedded into U by using the VEm procedure to get the outputimage V with size of H x W pixels. Fourthly, the compressedlocation map CM2 whose length is LC2 is embedded into V byusing the LSB replacement technique to get the final stegoimage with size of H x W pixels.Each bit b in stream B1 is horizontally embedded into eachhorizontally embeddable pixel pair (x, y) at a time by using thehorizontal embedding rule HR defined below until the wholebit stream B1 is completely marked into O to obtain the outputimage T.Each bit b in B2 is vertically embedded into each verticallyembeddable pixel pair (u, v) at a time by using the verticalembedding rule VR defines below until the entire bit sequenceB2 is concealed into U to get the output image V.
The horizontal embedding rule HR:
For each pair (x, y), weapply the following embedding rules:
 
HR1: If the to_be_embedded bit b=1, then the stegopixel pair is unchanged by (x0, y0) = (x, y).
 
HR2: If the to_be_embedded bit b=0, then the stegopixel pair is changed by (x0, y0) = (x, y-1).
The vertical embedding rule VR:
For each pair (u,v), weapply the following embedding rules:
 
VR1: If the to_be_embedded bit b=0, then the stegopixel pair is unchanged by (u0, y0) = (u,v).
 
VR2: If the to_be_embedded bit b=1, then the stegopixel pair is changed by (u0, y0) = (u, v+1).
It is noted that the rule HR and VR don’t cause the
underflow and overflow problem. That is the changed pixelpairs are assured to fall in the allowable range [0,255].The auxiliary data bit sequence A1 is actually the LSBs of the first LC1 (LC1 is the length of the compressed locationmap CM1 ended with the unique end of map indicator EOM1)pixels in the image T and generated as follows. Initially, B1 isequal to S1 (i.e., B1=S1). During the execution of the HEmprocedure, for the first LC1 pixels in O, when each pixel hasbeen processed for embedding, its LSB is taken as an auxiliarydata bit of A1 and appended to the end of B1. That is, B1 isgradually grown until the LC1 auxiliary data bits in A1 areconcatenated into B1. Finally, the to_be_embedded bit streamis B1=S1||A1, which is completely embedded into O.Similar to the generation of A1, the auxiliary data streamA2 is actually the LSBs of the first LC2 (LC2 is the length of the compressed location map CM2 ended with the unique endof map indicator EOM2) pixels in the image V and generatedas follows. B2 initially equals the secret bit sequence S2.During the execution of the procedure VEm, for the first LC2pixels in the image U, when each pixel has been processed forembedding, its LSB is taken as an auxiliary data bit of A2 andappend to the end of B2 until the LC2 auxiliary data bits in A2are concatenated into B2. Finally, the information bit sequenceis B2=S2||A2, which is fully marked into the image U.For the purposes of extracting B1 and recovering O, alocation map HL sized H x (W/2) is needed to record thepositions of the horizontally embeddable pixel pair (x, y) in O.The location map HL is a one-bit bitmap. All the entries of HLare initialized to 0. If cover pixel pair (x, y) is the horizontallyembeddable pixel pair, then the corresponding entry of HL isset to be 1. Next, the location map HL is losslessly compressedby using the JBIG2 codec (Howard et al, 1998 [8]) or anarithmetic coding toolkit (Carpenter, 2002 [7]) to obtain thecompressed location map CM1 whose length is LC1. Thecompressed location map CM1 is embedded into the image Tby using the LSB replacement technique as mentioned above.Similarly, for the purposes of extracting B2 and recovering theimage U, we also need a location map VL sized (H/2) x W tomark the position of the vertically embeddable pixel pairs (u, v)in U. Then, VL is also losslessly compressed by using theJBIG2 codec or an arithmetic coding toolkit to obtain thecompressed location map CM2 whose length is LC2. Next, themap CM2 is concealed into the image V by using the LSBsteganography as mentioned above.The final output of the embedding phase is the final stegoimage X with size of H x W pixels.III.
 
T
HE
P
ROPOSED
S
TEGANALYTIC
S
CHEME FOR THE
RVH
 
S
TEGANOGRAPHY
 After embedding a large message sequence M (its ratio isabout 90% of maximum embeddable capacity of image) intothe original image Baboon sized 512x512 pixels (show Fig. 2)using the RVH scheme to obtain the stego-image Baboon, wecalculate histogram of the two images (cover Baboon imageand stego Baboon image), resulted in Fig. 3.
It’s very hard to
detect any difference between the two images.However, when we separably calculate two histograms onall pixel odd columns and all pixel even rows of the coverBaboon image, shown in Fig. 4. Similarly, calculate twohistograms on all pixel odd columns and all pixel even rows of the stego Baboon image, resulted in Fig. 5.
It’s easy to
 difference between pair histogram in Fig.4 (a) and Fig. 5 (a), inFig. 4 (b) and Fig. 5 (b). The informality appears in Fig 5 (a)
8http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
and (b) due to embedding process of RVH scheme followingdescription in detail below.
Fig. 2. The Baboon image sized 512x512 pixels(a)
 
(b)
 
Fig. 3. Histogram of the tested two images: (a) the cover Baboon image,(b) the stego Baboon image(a)
 
(b)
 
Fig. 4. Histogram of the cover Baboon images: (a) histogram on all pixel oddcolumns, (b) histogram on all pixel even columns(a)
 
(b)
 
Fig. 5. Histogram of the stego Baboon images: (a) histogram on all pixel oddcolumns, (b) histogram on all pixel even columns
According to the horizontal embedding procedure HEm,from an input image O, the pixels of the image O arehorizontally grouped into pixel pairs (x, y), these pairs arepartitioned into two sets, one set is E1 and other set is

, theset E1 contains pixels pair which are horizontally embeddablepixel pairs, while the set

consists of those pixel pairs whichare horizontally non-embeddable pixel pairs.Now, we examine the migration of LSB histogram of theimage O and the image T obtained after embedding secret bitB1. Without loss of generality, let (x, y) and (
be thecorresponding pixel pairs in the image O and the stego-imageT, respectively. In the horizontal embedding procedure HEm,pixel pairs (x, y)
E1, i.e. the LSB of pixel y be bit 1, are
selected to embed message bits. Here, We don’t examine
change of LSB histogram of pixels x on pixel even-columnsbecause they are still remained value after embedding messagebits. In the image T, the LSB of 
is changed to either 0 or 1,and each of them appears in the same probability. It isobviously that the probability of bit 0 and bit 1 are 0.5 and 0.5,respectively. For pixel pairs (x, y)
 

, i.e. the LSB of pixel ybe bit 0, after embedding secret bits,
is unchanged. So theprobability of bit 0 and 1 are 1 and 0, respectively.Next, the compressed location map CM1 (CM1 is a binarystream, whose length is LC1) are marked into the image T bythe LSB replacement technique to obtained image U. Thatchanges a part of probability of LSB of bit 1 and bit 0 on allpixel even-columns in the image T. Assume that the bits arerandomly distributed, so the probability of bit 0 and bit 1 areP
map1
(0) = P
map1
(1).
0 50 100 150 200 250 30005001000150020002500300035004000
0 50 100 150 200 250 30005001000150020002500300035004000
0 50 100 150 200 250 3000200400600800100012001400160018002000
0 50 100 150 200 250 3000200400600800100012001400160018002000
0 50 100 150 200 250 3000200400600800100012001400160018002000
0 50 100 150 200 250 30005001000150020002500
9http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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