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Off-line Handwritten Signature Recognition Using Wavelet Neural Network

Off-line Handwritten Signature Recognition Using Wavelet Neural Network

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract - Automatic signature verification is a well-established and an active area for research with numerous applications such as bank check verification, ATM access, etc. Most off-Line signature verification systems depend on pixels intensity in feature extraction process which is sensitive to noise and any scale or rotation process on signature image. This paper proposes an off-line handwritten signature recognition system using Discrete Wavelet Transform as feature extraction technique to extract wavelet energy values from signature image without any dependency of image pixels intensity. Since Discrete Wavelet Transform suffers from down-sample process, Wavelet Neural Network is used as a classifier to solve this problem. A comparative study will be illustrated between the proposed combination system and pervious off-line handwritten signature recognition systems. Conclusions will be appeared and future work is proposed.

Keywords-Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT); Wavelet Energy; Wavelet Neural Network (WNN); Off-line Handwritten Signature.
Abstract - Automatic signature verification is a well-established and an active area for research with numerous applications such as bank check verification, ATM access, etc. Most off-Line signature verification systems depend on pixels intensity in feature extraction process which is sensitive to noise and any scale or rotation process on signature image. This paper proposes an off-line handwritten signature recognition system using Discrete Wavelet Transform as feature extraction technique to extract wavelet energy values from signature image without any dependency of image pixels intensity. Since Discrete Wavelet Transform suffers from down-sample process, Wavelet Neural Network is used as a classifier to solve this problem. A comparative study will be illustrated between the proposed combination system and pervious off-line handwritten signature recognition systems. Conclusions will be appeared and future work is proposed.

Keywords-Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT); Wavelet Energy; Wavelet Neural Network (WNN); Off-line Handwritten Signature.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, 2010
1
Off-line Handwritten Signature RecognitionUsing Wavelet Neural Network 
Mayada Tarek 
1
 Computer Science Department,Faculty of Computers and InformationSciences,Mansoura, Egypt
Taher Hamza
 Computer Science Department,Faculty of Computers and InformationSciences,Mansoura, Egypt
 Elsayed Radwan
 Computer Science Department,Faculty of Computers and InformationSciences,Mansoura, Egypt
 
 Abstract
 ـــ
  ـ
Automatic signatureverificationis a well-established and an active area for research with numerousapplications such as bank check verification, ATM access,etc. Most off-Line signature verification systems dependon pixelsintensityin feature extraction process which issensitive to noise and any scale or rotation process onsignature image. This paper proposesan off-linehandwritten signature recognition system using DiscreteWavelet Transform as feature extraction technique toextract wavelet energy values from signature imagewithout any dependency of image pixels intensity. SinceDiscrete Wavelet Transform suffers from down-sampleprocess, Wavelet Neural Network is used as a classifier tosolve this problem. A comparative study will be illustratedbetween the proposed combination system and perviousoff-line handwritten signature recognition systems.Conclusions will be appeared and future work is proposed.
  Keywords-Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT); Wavelet Energy; Wavelet Neural Network (WNN); Off-line Handwritten Signature.
I. INTRODUCTIONIn the field of personal identification, two types of biometrics means can be considered; first, physiologicalbiometrics, which involves data derived from the directmeasurement of some part of the human body; for-example fingerprint-, face-, palm print-, retina-basedverification. Second, behavioural biometrics, whichinvolves data derived from an action taken by a person,or indirectly measures characteristics of the humanbody; for-example: speech-, keystroke dynamics andsignature-based verification [1].
 
In the last few decades, researchers have made greatefforts on off-line signature verification [1] for-example; using the statistics of high grey-level pixels toidentify pseudo-dynamic characteristics of signatures;developing technique based on global and grid featuresin conjunction with a simple Euclidean distanceclassifier; proposing a system for off-line signatureverification consists of four subsystems based ongeometric features, moment representations, envelopecharacteristics and wavelet features; applying waveleton signature verification [2,3,4,5].Although these methods achieved a good results, theystill suffer from the exchangeability of signaturerotation and the distinguish-ability of person signaturesize. Most of these feature extraction methods dependon signature shape or pixels intensity in specific regionof signature. However, pixels' intensity are sensitive tonoise and also the signature shape may vary accordingto translation, rotation and scale variations of signatureimage [6].Two types of feature can be extracted from signatureimage; first, global features which are extracted fromthe whole signature, including block codes [7]; second,local features which are calculated to describe thegeometrical and topological characteristics of localsegments [8]. Because of the absence of dynamicinformation in offline verification system, globalfeatures extraction are most appropriate [9]. One of themost appropriate global features extraction techniques iswavelet transform, since it extracts time-frequencywavelet coefficients from the signature image [8].Wavelet Transform is especially suitable for processingan off-line signature image where most details could behardly represented by functions, but could be matchedby the various versions of the mother wavelet withvarious translations and dilations [10]. Also, wavelettransform is invariant to translation, rotation and scaleof the image. Because of the advantage of wavelettransform, this paper uses it in feature extraction stage.Since one of problems that face wavelet is the huge sizeof its coefficients, statistical model can be introduced torepresent them. This paper uses wavelet energy asstatistical model to represent all wavelet coefficients inefficient way. Another problem is down-sample processwhich can lose some important extracted feature fromsignature image[11]. This paper proposes a WaveletNeural Network (WNN) technique for off-line signaturerecognition to overcome the disadvantages of DiscreteWavelet Transform (DWT) down-sample process.
1
Corresponding AuthorMail: mayaatarek@yahoo.com
Tel : 020108631688
 
13http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, 2010
2
WNN takes full advantages of the partial-resolutioncharacteristic of the wavelet transform and the nonlinearmapping behaviour of Artificial Neural Networks(ANN) [15].
 
This paper proposes a combination model betweenDWT and WNN techniques for off-line handwrittensignature recognition system. DWT technique willanalysis signature image to extract wavelet detailcoefficients. To reduce the huge number of thesecoefficients with the same accuracy, a statistical modelis represented by wavelet energy. Because of theproblem of down sample, WNN technique will be usedas a suitable classifier technique to overcome thisproblem. Also, a modified back-propagation techniqueis used in learning WNN. A testing stage examines theunseen signature. Moreover, a comparative study willbe illustrated between the proposed combination systemand pervious off-line handwritten signature recognitionsystems. Conclusions will be appeared and future work is suggested.The rest of this paper organized as; in Section 2,Handwritten signature, wavelet transform (WT),Wavelet Neural Network (WNN) are mentioned.Methodology and applications using a combinationbetween DWT and WNN techniques is described inSection 3. Section4, consists of the result of theproposed combination system and a comparative studybetween three strategies (signature image pixelsintensity value as input to ANN , signature waveletenergy values as input to ANN and signature waveletenergy values as input to WNN). Finally section 5concludes the paper.II. PRELIMINARIES
 A. Handwritten Signature
Handwritten signatures are widely accepted as a meansof document authentication, authorization and personalverification. For legality most documents like bank cheques, travel passports and academic certificates needto have authorized handwritten signatures. In modernsociety where fraud is rampant, there is the need for anautomatic Handwritten Signature Verification system(HSV) [6].
 
Dependency on automation is due to thedifficulty faced in visual assessment for different typesand different sizes of signatures. Simple, cursive,graphical and not a connected curve pattern are some of the different types of signatures and machines are farsuperior when it comes to processing speed andmanagement of large data sets with consistency [12].Automatic HSV systems are classified into two types:offline HSV and online HSV: static or off-line systemand dynamic or on-line system .Static off-line systemgain data after writing process has been completed .Inthis case the signature is represented as a grey levelimage. Dynamic systems use on-line acquisition devicesthat generate electronic signals representative of thesignature during the writing process [1].It is well known that no two genuine signatures of aperson are precisely the same and some signatureexperts note that if two signatures written on paper weresame, then they could be considered as forgery bytracing .Unfortunately, off-line signature verification isa difficult discrimination problem because of dynamicinformation regarding the signing velocity, pressure andstroke order are not available also an off-linehandwritten signature is depend for instance on , theangle at which people sign may be different due toseating position or due to support taken by hand on the
writing surface and all this information can’t be extract
from static image[12].
 B. Wavelet Transform :
Wavelet Transform (WT) [13] is become a powerfulalternative analysis tool to Fourier methods in manysignal processing applications. The main advantages of wavelets is that they have a varying window size, beingwide for slow frequencies and narrow for the fast ones,thus leading to an optimal time-frequency resolution inall the frequency ranges. Furthermore, owing to the factthat windows are adapted to the transients of each scale,wavelets lack the requirement of stationary. There aretwo types of Wavelet Transform; Continous WaveletTransform(CWT), Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT).The Continuous Wavelet Transform [14] of a 1-D signalx(t) is defined as in
equation (1)
:Where
ψ 
(t) is the mother wavelet or the basis functionwhich, in a form analogous to sins and cosines inFourier analysis. All the wavelet functions used in thetransformation are derived from the mother waveletthrough translation (shifting)
b
and scaling (dilation orcompression)
a
.
 
The Discrete Wavelet Transform [14], which is basedon sub-band coding is found to yield a fast computationof wavelet transform. It is easy to implement andreduces the computation time and resources required.In CWT, the signals are analyzed using a set of basisfunctions which relate to each other by simple scalingand translation. In the case of DWT, a time-scalerepresentation of the digital signal is obtained usingdigital filtering techniques. The signal to be analyzed ispassed through filters with different cut off frequenciesat different scales[14].In DWT, the extension to 2-D is usually performed byusing a product of 1-D filters. The transform iscomputed by applying a filter bank as shown in
 Figure 1
. L and H to denote the 1-D low pass and high
(a,b)
(t)=
 
1
√ 
|
|
 
(
)
 
(
ba
) dt (1)
 
14http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, 2010
3
pass filter, respectively. The rows and columns of imageare processed separately and down sampled by a factorof 2 in each direction which may cause losing importantfeature. Resulting in one low pass image LL and threedetail images HL, LH, and HH.
 Figure 2a
shows theone-level decomposition of 
 Figure 1
in the spatialdomain. The LH channel contains image information of low horizontal frequency and high vertical frequency,the HL channel contains high horizontal frequency andlow vertical frequency, and the HH channel containshigh horizontal and high vertical frequencies. Three-level frequency decomposition is shown in
 Figure 2b
.Note that in multi-scale wavelet decomposition only theLL sub-band is successively decomposed [13].
 Figure 1
: A one-level wavelet analysis filter bank.
 Figure 2
: Wavelet frequency decomposition
.
C. Wavelet Neural Network :
WNN is a combination technique between neuralnetwork and wavelet decomposition .The advantages of the WNN are a high-speed learning and a goodconvergence to the global minimum [15].The reason forthe application of WNN in case of such a problem asclassification is that the feature extraction andrepresentation properties of the wavelet transform aremerged into the structure of the ANN to further extendthe ability to approximate complicated patterns [16].The WNN can be considered an expanded perceptron[17]. The WNN is designed as a three-layer structurewith an input layer, a wavelet layer, and an output layer.The topological structure of the WNN is illustrated in
 Figure 3
.In WNN, both the position and dilation of the waveletsas well as the weights are optimized. The basic neuronof a WNN is a multidimensional wavelet in which thedilation and translation coefficients are considered asneuron parameters .The output of WNN is therefore alinear combination of several multidimensionalwavelets [15].
 Figure 3
: The structure of the Wavelet Neural Network 
In this WNN model, the hidden neurons have waveletactivation functions
ψ 
 
and have two parameter
a
t
,b
t
 
which represent dilation and translation parameter of wavelet function
 
and
V
 
is the weight connecting theinput layer and hidden layer
 
and
U
 
is the weightconnecting the hidden layer and output layer.Let
 X 
 n
 
={
 x
i
},i=1,......,L
and
n=1,......N
be
 
the WNNinput to no. n sample
;
 n
 
={
 y
k
},k=1,......,S
representsthe output of WNN
;
 D
={
 d 
k
},k=1,......,S
represents theexpected output
; V
ij
represents the connection weightbetween no.
i
node (input layer) and
. j
node (hiddenlayer)
; U
 jk
represents the connection weight betweenno.
j
node (hidden layer) and
k
node (output layer)
.
 Where
N
is the number of Sample
;
S is the number of output node
; L
is the number of input node
; M
is thenumber of hidden layer.III.
 
WAVELET NEURAL NETWORK FOROFF-LINE HANDWRITTEN SIGNATURERECOGNITIONAccording to the fact that
there aren’t
two genuinesignatures of one person are precisely the same, manyefforts have been done in order to comprehend thedelicate nuances of person signatures [12]. Especiallyoff-line signature recognition needs more effort becauseof the absence of dynamic information
that can’t be
extracted from static image [12]. Also, the problems of translation, rotation and scale variation of signatureimage are still found when dealing with signature imagepixels
’ intensity
[6].This paper presents an implementation for off-linehandwritten signature recognition system using DWTtechnique in feature extraction phase and WNN inclassification phase to overcome all the above problemswith off-line handwritten signature recognition system.DWT technique depends on analyzing all signatureshapes (continuous case) instead of analyzing the pixelsintensity or segmentation part of signature (discretecase). Because of the problem of down-sample caused
15http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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