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PAPR Reduction Technique for LTE SC-FDMA Systems Using Root-Raised Cosine Filter

PAPR Reduction Technique for LTE SC-FDMA Systems Using Root-Raised Cosine Filter

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract— Recently, mobile radio communications have developed rapidly due to the endless demand for broadband multimedia access and wireless connection anywhere, and any time. With the emergence of diverse fourth generation (4G) enabling technologies, signal processing has become ever increasingly important for small power, small chip resources, and efficient physical implementations of potential multimedia wireless communication systems. In this paper, we analytically derive the time and frequency domain single carrier-frequency division multiplexing (SC-FDMA) signals. Simulation results show that the SC-FDMA sub-carrier mapping scheme has a significantly lower peak-to average power ratio (PAPR) compared to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDMA). In addition, the interleave FDMA (IFDMA) sub-carrier mapping scheme with root raised cosine filter reduced PAPR significantly than localized FDMA (LFDMA) and distributed (DFDMA) subcarrier mapping scheme. As a results, improves the mean power output from a battery driven terminal equipment and power amplifier efficiency.

Index Terms—CCDF, IFDMA, OFDMA, PAPR, root-raised cosine, SC-FDMA.
Abstract— Recently, mobile radio communications have developed rapidly due to the endless demand for broadband multimedia access and wireless connection anywhere, and any time. With the emergence of diverse fourth generation (4G) enabling technologies, signal processing has become ever increasingly important for small power, small chip resources, and efficient physical implementations of potential multimedia wireless communication systems. In this paper, we analytically derive the time and frequency domain single carrier-frequency division multiplexing (SC-FDMA) signals. Simulation results show that the SC-FDMA sub-carrier mapping scheme has a significantly lower peak-to average power ratio (PAPR) compared to orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDMA). In addition, the interleave FDMA (IFDMA) sub-carrier mapping scheme with root raised cosine filter reduced PAPR significantly than localized FDMA (LFDMA) and distributed (DFDMA) subcarrier mapping scheme. As a results, improves the mean power output from a battery driven terminal equipment and power amplifier efficiency.

Index Terms—CCDF, IFDMA, OFDMA, PAPR, root-raised cosine, SC-FDMA.

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PAPR Reduction Technique for LTE SC-FDMASystems Using Root-Raised Cosine Filter
Md. Masud Rana, Jinsang Kim and Won-Kyung ChoDeptartment of Electronics and Radio Engineering, Kyung Hee University1 Seocheon, Kihung, Yongin, Gyeonggi, 449-701, Republic of KoreaEmail: mamaraece28@yahoo.com
 Abstract
—Recently, mobile radio communications have de-veloped rapidly due to the endless demand for broadbandmultimedia access and wireless connection anywhere, and anytime. With the emergence of diverse fourth generation (4G)enabling technologies, signal processing has become ever in-creasingly important for small power, small chip resources,and efficient physical implementations of potential multimediawireless communication systems. In this paper, we analyticallyderive the time and frequency domain single carrier-frequencydivision multiplexing (SC-FDMA) signals. Simulation resultsshow that the SC-FDMA sub-carrier mapping scheme has asignificantly lower peak-to average power ratio (PAPR) comparedto orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDMA). Inaddition, the interleave FDMA (IFDMA) sub-carrier mappingscheme with root raised cosine filter reduced PAPR significantlythan localized FDMA (LFDMA) and distributed (DFDMA) sub-carrier mapping scheme. As a results, improves the mean poweroutput from a battery driven terminal equipment and poweramplifier efficiency.
 Index Terms
—CCDF, IFDMA, OFDMA, PAPR, root-raisedcosine, SC-FDMA.
I. I
NTRODUCTION
The further increasing demand on high data rates in wirelesscommunication systems has arisen in order to support broad-band services. The third generation partnership project (3GPP)members started feasibility study on the enhancement of theuniversal terrestrial radio access (UTRA) in December 2004,to improve the mobile phone standard to cope with futurerequirements. This project was called long term evolution(LTE) [1].LTE uses single carrier frequency division multiple access(SC-FDMA) for uplink transmission and orthogonal frequencydivision multiple access (OFDMA) for downlink transmission[6]. SC-FDMA is a promising technique for high data ratetransmission that utilizes single carrier modulation and fre-quency domain equalization. Single carrier transmitter struc-ture leads to keep the peak-to average power ratio (PAPR)as low as possible that is reduced the energy consumption.SC-FDMA has similar throughput performance and essentiallythe same overall complexity as OFDMA [3], [10], [12]. Ahighly efficient way to cope with the frequency selectivityof wideband channel is OFDMA. OFDMA is an effectivetechnique for combating multipath fading and for high bitrate transmission over mobile wireless channels. In OFDMAsystem, the entire channel is divided into many narrow sub-channels, which are transmitted in parallel, thereby increasingthe symbol duration and reducing the intersymbol-interference(ISI) [4], [8]. Despite many benefits of OFDMA for high speeddata rate services, it suffer from high envelope fluctuationin the time domain, leading to large PAPR. Because thehigh PAPR is detrimental to user mobile equipment (UE)terminals, SC-FDMA has drawn great attention as an attractivealternative to OFDMA for uplink data transmission. It can beregarded as DFT-spread OFDMA (DFTS-OFDM), where timedomain data signals are transformed to frequency domain bya DFT before going through OFDMA modulation. The mainbenefit of DFTS-OFDM compared to OFDM scheme, is re-duced variations in the instantaneous transmit power, implyingthe possibility for increased power-amplifier efficiency, low-complexity high-quality equalization in the frequency domain,and flexible bandwidth assignment [12].In order to solve the high PAPR problem seen in theuplink of OFDMA, research is now addressing techniques suchas a SC-FDMA. The most of the previous work related to3GPP LTE uplink has been mainly focused on implementationproblems in the physical layer [2], [5], [9], [13]. In [10], [12]proposed raised-cosine pulse shaping method that comparePAPR characteristics using the complementary cumulativedistribution function (CCDF) for different subcarrier mapping.PAPR reduction is of the most importance performanceparameter in case of high amplitude signals subject to nonlinear power amplification. This situation more and more occurdue to the ever-growing demand in high spectral efficiencyadvanced mobile telecommunications systems implying multidimensional waveforms considerations for which the PAPRis high. Pulse shaping is required for a single carrier sys-tem to bandlimit the transmit signal. This paper addressesa theoretical analysis of the PAPR reduction of LTE SC-FDMA systems when root-raised cosine (RRC) filter is used.RRC is used as the transmit and receive filter in a digitalcommunication system to perform matched filtering. Thecombined response of two such filters is that of the raised-cosine filter. In this paper, we analytically derive the time andfrequency domain SC-FDMA signals. Simulation results show
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 201066http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
that the SC-FDMA has a significantly lower PAPR comparedto OFDMA system. In addition, we comparing the three formsof SC-FDMA sub-carrier mapping scheme and find that theinterleave FDMA (IFDMA) sub-carrier mapping with rootraised cosine based pulse shapping method reduced PAPRsignificantly than localized FDMA (LFDMA) and DFDMAsub-carrier mapping scheme. As a results, improves the meanpower output from a battery driven terminal equipment andpower amplifier efficiency.The rest of the paper is organized as follows. We describesthe 3GPP LTE and LTE SC-FDMA system model in sec-tion II and III, respectively. In section IV, we describes thedifferent SC-FDMA sub-carrier mapping scheme. In sectionV, we describes the PAPR reduction technique for LTE SC-FDMA systems. In section VI, we simulated and comparethe proposed method with OFDMA for different sub-carriermapping scheme. Finally, conclusions are made in section VII.II. 3GPP LTEThe main purposes of the 3GPP LTE are substantiallyimproved end-user throughputs, low latency, reduced userequipment (UE) complexity, high data rate, and significantlyimproved user experience with full mobility. First 3GPP LTEand LTE-advanced (LTE-A) specification is being finalizedwithin 3GPP release 9 and release 10, respectively [1].
Year20052006200720082009201020112012Release 7 study phase (HSPA+)Release 8 work phase (LTE)Release 9 test specsRelease 10 (LTEadvanced)Release
MassmarketFirst UEcertificationFirsttestspecsCorespecsdraftedInitiallydevelopmentRelease
 
6HSPA uplink 
Fig. 1. LTE release timeline.
Specifically, the physical layer has become quite stable re-cently for a first implementation. LTE supports multipule inputmultiput output (MIMO) with one, two, four, and eight antennaelements at base station (BS) and mobile terminal. Both closedand open loop MIMO operation is possible. The target of LTE-A is to reach and surpass the international telecommunicationunion (ITU) requirements. One of the important LTE-A ben-efits is the ability to leverage advanced topology networks;optimized heterogeneous networks with a mix of macros withlow power nodes such as picocells, femtocells, ensures userfairness, worldwide roaming, and new relay nodes [1].In 3GPP LTE, the basic unit of a transmission scheme is aradio frame which is ten msec long. They are divided into tensub-frames, each sub-frame one msec long. Each sub-frame isfurther divided into two slots, each of half msec duration. Fig.2, shows the basic LTE generic frame structure [11]. The sub-carrier spacing in the frequency domain is 15 kHz. Twelveof these sub-carriers together (per slot) is called a resourceblock therefore one resource block is 180 kHz. Six resource
43220191716….……11 Slot = 7 OFDM symbols = 0.5 ms2 Slots = 1 Sub-frame = 10 msOne radio frame = 20 Slots = 10 Sub-frames = 10 ms1765432 7 OFDM symbols
Cyclic prefix
1 resource elementPilot15
   1   2  s  u   b  -  c  a  r  r   i  e  r  s  =   1   8   0   k   H  z
Resource block:
Short CP:7 symbols x 12 sub-carriersLong CP:6 symbols x 12 sub-carriers
Fig. 2. LTE generic frame structure.
blocks fit in a carrier of 1.4 MHz and 100 resource blocksfit in a carrier of 20 MHz. Slots consist of either 6 or 7OFDM symbols, depending on whether the normal or extendedcyclic prefix (CP) is employed. The CP is added in front of each block. The details transmission scheme parameters of the 3GPP LTE system are shown in Table I [7]. LTE uses SC-FDMA scheme for the uplink transmissions and OFDMA indownlink transmission.
TABLE ILTE
SYSTEM PARAMETERS
Trans. bandwidth (MHz) 1.25 2.5 5 10 15 20FFT size 128 256 512 1024 1536 2048Occupied sub-carrier 76 151 301 601 901 1200Sampling frequency (MHz) 1.92 3.84 7.68 15.36 23.04 30.72No. of available PRBs 6 12 25 50 75 100User plane latency (ms)
<
5PRB bandwidth (kHz) 180Frame duration (ms) 0.5Sub-carrier bandwidth (kHz) 15Coverage (km) 5-30Mobility (km/hr) 15-350Peak data rates (Mbits/s) DL: 100, and UL: 50Antenna configuration DL: 4x2, 2x2, 1x2, 1x1, and UL: 1x2, 1x1Spectrum efficiency DL: 3-4 x HSDPA, and UL: 2-3 x HSUPA Rel.6Control plane latency (ms) 100 (idle to active), and 50 (dormant to active)Radio resource DL: 3-4 fold higher than Rel.6
III. LTE SC-FDAMA
SYSTEM MODEL
The basic principle of a LTE SC-FDMA transmission sys-tem is shown in Fig. 3.At the transmitter side, a baseband modulator transmits thebinary input to a multilevel sequences of complex number
m
1
(
q
)
in one of several possible modulation formats including,quandary phase shift keying (QPSK), and 16 level-QAM.These modulated symbols are perform a N-point discreteFourier transform (DFT) to produce a frequency domainrepresentation [3]:
s
1
(
n
) =1
1
q
=0
m
1
(
q
)
e
j
2
πqnN
,
(1)where
m
1
is the discrete symbols,
q
is the sample index,
j
isthe imaginary unit, and
m
1
(
q
)
is the data symbol. The output
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 201067http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Input dataModulationCyclicprefix(CP)insertionRemove CPSize-MDFTSubcarrier demappingEqualizationSize-N IDFTX+ChannelNoiseSize-N DFTSubcarrier mappingDemodulationOutput dataSize-M IDFT
m
1
(q)s
1
(n)s
2
(q)s(m)r(m)R(k)s
3
(m)
Fig. 3. LTE SC-FDMA transceiver system model [6].
of the DFT is then applied to consecutive inputs of a size-Minverse DFT (M
>
N) and where the unused inputs of the IDFTare set to zero. If they are equal (M=N), they simply cancelout and it becomes a conventional single user single carriersystem with frequency domain equalization. However, if 
issmaller than
and the remaining inputs to the IDFT are setto zero, the output of the IDFT will be a signal with ’single-carrier’ properties, i.e. a signal with low power variations, andwith a bandwidth that depends on N. The SC-FDMA is single-carrier, not single frequency. The data signal of each userconsists of a lot of frequency. DFT of SC-FDMA is used tofilter the frequency items and maps them into IDFT to reformsingle user waveform. This may justify the reduced peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) experienced in the IDFT output.The details description of the sub-carrier mapping mode are insection
IV 
. PAPR is a comparison of the peak power detectedover a period of sample occurs over the same time period. ThePAPR of the transmit signal is defined as [14]:
PAPR
=max
0
<m<T 
|
s
(
m
)
|
2
1
T
∫ 
T
0
|
s
(
m
)
|
2
dm,
(2)where
is the symbol period of the transmitted signal
s
(
m
)
.PAPR is best described by its statistical parameter, com-plementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF). CCDFmeasures the probability of signal PAPR exceeding certainthreshold [12], [14]. To further reduce the power variationsof the DFTS-OFDM signal, explicit spectrum shaping can beapplied. Spectrum shaping is applied by multiplying the fre-quency samples with some spectrum-shaping function, e.g. aroot-raised-cosine function (raised-cosine-shaped power spec-trum). The IDFT module output is followed by a CP insertionthat completes the digital stage of the signal flow. A CP isused to eliminate ISI and preserve the orthogonality of thetones. Assume that the channel length of CP is larger than thechannel delay spread [8].The transmitted symbols propagating through the radiochannel can be modeled as a circular convolution between thechannel impulse response (CIR) and transmitted data blocks.At the receiver, the opposite set of the operation is performed.The CP samples are discarded and the remaining N samplesare processed by the DFT to retrieve the complex constellationsymbols transmitted over the orthogonal sub-channels. Thereceived signals are de-mapped and equalizer is used tocompensate for the radio channel frequency selectivity. AfterIDFT operation, the corresponding output is demodulated andsoft or hard values of the corresponding bits are passed to thedecoder.IV. SC-FDMA
SUB
-
CARRIER MAPPING SCHEME
There are two principal sub-carrier mapping modes-localized mode, and distribution mode. An example of SC-FDMA transmit symbols in the frequency domain for twouser, three sub-carrier per user and six sub-carriers in totalis illustrated in Fig. 4 [6].
(x)(y)(z)
Time domainFrequency domainUser 3User 2User 1Complex weightZeross
1
(3)s
1
(2)
s
1
(1)
Fig. 4. Multiple access scheme of SC-FDMA: (x) IFDMA mode, (y)DFDMA mode, and (z) LFDMA.
In distributed sub-carrier mode, the outputs are allocatedequally spaced sub-carrier, with zeros occupying the unusedsub-carrier in between. While in localized sub-carrier mode,the outputs are confined to a continuous spectrum of sub-carrier [10], [12]. Except the above two modes, interleavedsub-carrier mapping mode of SC-FDMA (IFDMA) is anotherspecial sub-carrier mapping mode. The difference betweenDFDMA and IFDMA is that the outputs of IFDMA areallocated over the entire bandwidth, whereas the DFDMAsoutputs are allocated every several sub-carriers. If there aremore than one user in the system, different sub-carrier map-ping modes give different sub-carrier allocation [10], [12].In order to accommodate multiple access to the system andto preserve the constant envelope property of the signal, the
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 201068http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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