(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
between two ends. Multi-pathing strips the data tobe sent to a destination and sends these chunks viamultiple paths, which increases the throughputsignificantly. It also provides robustness to paths,because there is always an alternative unless thedestination itself is not connected to the network.2.
Self-healing, self-forming and self-organising:Since most of the nodes of the WMN are mobile,the WMN is always aware of its surroundings. Itdynamically changes the routing paths based on thecurrent state of the network. If a participating nodequits, the network is reconfigured so as to keep theremaining nodes connected. Similarly the dynamicchanges in the network must also take place basedon the network traffic at different routes.3.
Compatibility and interoperability: The WMNsbuilt on the IEEE 802.11 standards must be capableof supporting conventional Wi-Fi clients.4.
Cost Factor: WMNs can be very cost effectivebecause we can build and configure a WMN withminimal existing resources. A WMN could providean effective and good internet bandwidth to thegroup of users who share a single internet link.IV.
COMPONENTS OF WIRELESS MESHNETWORKSA WMN consists of two types of wireless nodes. MeshRouters and Mesh Clients. The Mesh Routers haveimproved computational, communication and powerresources as compared to Mesh Clients. Mesh Routers aregenerally static and form the multi-hop backhaul network with optional access to other auxiliary networks. In addition,Mesh Routers are also typically equipped with multiplewireless network interfaces (IEEE 802.11
) and aretherefore able to establish high capacity connections. Mesh
Clients are mobile devices, which take advantage of theexisting communication infrastructure provided by the MeshRouters.
1-Radio VS Multi-Radio Approaches:
In 1-radio approach the participating nodes have only oneradio each. Consider a network where both the clients andthe mesh routers have only one radio, and then meshrouters would not be able to listen to the backhaul and theclient simultaneously. Collisions would be very frequent.This will result in very low throughput. Thus one radioWMN is inferior to multi-radio infrastructure meshnetworks in Multihop situations. In the case of 1 radio adhoc mesh networks, available bandwidth is reduced by50% with each hop: bandwidth available at the 3rd hop is1/8 of the available capacity. However, while one-radio adhoc mesh networks are unsuitable for Multihop situations,they are useful in one-hop situations for quicklyestablishing p2p communications. Conversely, 2-radioinfrastructure meshes are ideal for Multihop situationswith no restriction on the number of hops. Thus One radiomobile client mesh network combined with two or moreradio routers’ backhaul support provides the best hybridWMN; ubiquitous connectivity but with multiple levels of redundancy built in.V.
MULTI RADIO MESH ROUTERThere are mainly 4 types of Multi Radio Mesh Routers:1.
Single unit mesh router2.
split wireless router3.
Multi-Channel Multi-Transceiver single radio4.
low cost mesh router construction
Single Unit Mesh Router:
Single unit mesh router is a single package with multipleradios in it. All these radios’ operate in non overlappingchannels. Some of these could be used to relay packetsbetween routers, while the others to provide connectivity tothe clients or client adhoc network. Even though the radiosoperate in non-overlapping channels, the practical resultshave shown that there is a significant amount of interferencebetween them due to the near-field effect, resulting inreduced throughput
Split Wireless Router:
Split mesh router is a network (wired) of two or moresingle radio routers. This design has gained motivationfrom the limitations of the single unit multi-radio routers.We refer to the single radio routers which are part of splitrouter as nodes hereafter.The commercially available single-radio routers oftenprovide multiple interface technologies like the Ethernet,fiber or ATM. Two or more such units are connected via abackhaul using one of the available interface options likethe Ethernet. Since the separation between these nodes isdetermined by the cable length forming the backhaul, theinterference can be significantly reduced by increasing thedistance between them. This is an effective solution forthe interference due to near-field effect in the single unitmesh router.Since our mesh router unit is a combination of 3-singleradio routers, we need a software abstraction by which theassembly appears like a single unit to the network. Eachsingle radio router must here be aware of the neighbors of the other two.
Multi-Channel Multi Transceiver Single Radio
In this kind of routers, a radio includes multiple parallel RFfront-end chips and baseband processing modules to supportseveral simultaneous channels. On top of the physical layer,only one MAC layer module is needed to coordinate thefunctions of multiple channels. So far no multi-channelmulti-transceiver MAC protocol has been proposed forWMNs.
Low Cost Mesh Router Construction
A low cost router can be set up using two USB or PCI radiocards on a low-end computer. But this would also require aMAC layer which supports multiple NICs simultaneously.