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Prediction of Epileptic form Activity in Brain Electroencephalogram Waves using Support vector machine

Prediction of Epileptic form Activity in Brain Electroencephalogram Waves using Support vector machine

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract - Human brain is a highly complex structure composed of millions of nerve cells. Their activity is usually well organized with mechanisms for self-regulation. The neurons are responsible for a range of functions, including consciousness and bodily functions and postures. A sudden temporary interruption in some or all of these functions is called a seizure. Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important diagnostic test for diagnosing epilepsy because it records the electrical activity of the brain. This paper investigates the modeling of epilepsy prediction using Support Vector Machine, a supervised learning algorithm. The prediction model has been employed by training support vector machine with evocative features derived from EEG data of 324 patients and from the experimental results it is observed that the SVM model with RBF kernel produces 86% of accuracy in predicting epilepsy in human brain.

Keywords- Support Vector Machine, Epilepsy, Prediction, Supervised Learning.
Abstract - Human brain is a highly complex structure composed of millions of nerve cells. Their activity is usually well organized with mechanisms for self-regulation. The neurons are responsible for a range of functions, including consciousness and bodily functions and postures. A sudden temporary interruption in some or all of these functions is called a seizure. Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is an important diagnostic test for diagnosing epilepsy because it records the electrical activity of the brain. This paper investigates the modeling of epilepsy prediction using Support Vector Machine, a supervised learning algorithm. The prediction model has been employed by training support vector machine with evocative features derived from EEG data of 324 patients and from the experimental results it is observed that the SVM model with RBF kernel produces 86% of accuracy in predicting epilepsy in human brain.

Keywords- Support Vector Machine, Epilepsy, Prediction, Supervised Learning.

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Published by: ijcsis on Oct 10, 2010
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11/01/2012

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Prediction of Epileptic form Activity in BrainElectroencephalogram
 
Waves usingSupport vector machine
1
Pavithra Devi S T
 
M.Phil Research ScholarPSGR Krishnammal College for WomenCoimbatore Tamilnadu, INDIApavikrishnamouse@gmail.com
2
Vijaya M S
 
Assistant Professor and HeadGRG School of Applied ComputerTechnologyPSGR Krishnammal College for WomenCoimbatore Tamilnadu, INDIAmsvijaya@grgsact.com
ABSTRACTHuman brain is a highly complex structure composed of millions of nerve cells. Their activity is usually well organizedwith mechanisms for self-regulation. The neurons areresponsible for a range of functions, including consciousnessand bodily functions and postures. A sudden temporaryinterruption in some or all of these functions is called aseizure. Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to haverecurring seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is animportant diagnostic test for diagnosing epilepsy because itrecords the electrical activity of the brain.
 
This paper
 
investigates the modeling of epilepsy prediction using SupportVector Machine, a supervised learning algorithm. The
 
prediction model has been employed by training supportvector machine with evocative features derived from EEGdata of 324 patients and from the experimental results it isobserved that the SVM model with RBF kernel produces 86%of accuracy in predicting epilepsy in human brain.
 KeywordsSupport Vector Machine, Epilepsy, Prediction, Supervised  Learning.
 
1.
 
INTRODUCTIONEpilepsy is a disorder characterized by recurrentseizures of cerebral origin, presenting with episodes of sensory, motor or autonomic phenomenon with or withoutloss of consciousness. Epilepsy is a disorder of the centralnervous system, specifically the brain [1]. Brain is one of the most vital organs of humans, controlling thecoordination of human muscles and nerves. Epilepticseizures typically lead to an assortment of temporalchanges in perception and behavior. Based on thephysiological characteristics of epilepsy and theabnormality in the brain, the kind of epilepsy is determined.Epilepsy is broadly classified into absence epilepsy, simplepartial, complex partial and general epilepsy. Absenceepilepsy is a brief episode of staring. It usually beginsbetween ages 4 and 14. It may also continue to adolescenceor even adulthood. Simple partial epilepsy affects only asmall region of the brain, often the hippocampus. It canalso include sensory disturbances, such as smelling orhearing things that are not there, or having a sudden floodof emotions. Complex partial epilepsy usually starts in asmall area of the temporal lobe or frontal lobe of the brain.In general epilepsy the patient becomes unconscious thepatient has a general tonic
 
contraction of all their muscles,followed by alternating colonic
 
contractions. It affects theentire brain.Various diagnostic techniques like ComputedTomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI),Electroencephalogram (EEG), and Positron EmissionTomography (PET) are commonly presented.Electroencephalography (EEG) is the recording of electrical activity along the scalp produced by the firing of neurons within the brain. In clinical contexts, EEG refers tothe recording of the brain's spontaneous electrical activityover a short period of time, usually 20
 – 
40 minutes, asrecorded from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp. TheElectroencephalograph (EEG) signal is one of the mostwidely signal used in the bioinformatics field due to its richinformation about human tasks for epilepsy identificationbecause of its characteristics like frequency range, spatialdistributions and peak frequency. EEG waves are observedby neurologists based on spectra waveform of the signal toidentify the presence of epilepsy.Machine learning provides methods, techniques andtools, which help to learn automatically and to makeaccurate predictions based on past observations. Currentempirical results prove that machine learning approach iswell-matched for analyzing medical data and machinelearning techniques produce promising research results tomedical domains.Forrest Sheng Bao carried out the work and developeda neural network based model for Epilepsy diagnosis usingEEG [1]. Piotr Mirowski carried out the work andimplemented a model based on classification of patterns of EEG synchronization for seizure prediction using neuralnetwork [2]. Suleiman A.B. R. proposed a new approachfor describing and classifying the EEG brain naturaloscillations such as delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010116http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
using Wigner-Ville analysis with Choi-Willians filteringand neural network [3].The motivation behind the research reported in thispaper is to predict the presence of epilepsy in human brain.Supervised learning technique, a kind of machine learningalgorithm is used to model the epilepsy prediction problemas classification task to assist physician for accurateprediction of epilepsy in patients.In this paper, the prospective benefits of supervisedlearning algorithm namely support vector machine aremade use of for the computerized prediction of epilepsy.The proposed SVM based epilepsy prediction model isshown in Figure 1
.
Figure 1.Proposed SVM based epilepsy prediction model
2.
 
DATA ACQUISITIONEEGs show continuous oscillating electric activity. Theamplitude and the patterns are determined by the overallexcitation of the brain which in turn depends on the activityof the reticular activating system in the brain stem.Amplitudes on the surface of the brain can be up to 10 mV,those on the surface of the scalp range up to 100 mV.Frequencies range from 0.5 to 100 Hz. The pattern changesmarkedly between states of sleep and wakefulness. Distinctpatterns are seen in epilepsy and five classes of wavegroups are described as alpha, beta, gamma, delta andtheta.
 
Alpha waves contain frequenciesbetween 8 and 13 Hz with amplitude less than 10mV. It found in normal people who are awake andresting quietly, not being engaged in intensemental activity. Their amplitude is highest in theoccipital region. When the person is asleep, thealpha waves disappear. When the person is alertand their attention is directed to a specific activity,the alpha waves are replaced by asynchronouswaves of higher frequency and lower amplitude.
 
Beta waves have a frequency range of 14to 22 Hz, extending to 50 Hz under intense mentalactivity. It
 
has their maximum amplitude (less than20 mV) on the parietal and frontal regions of thescalp. There are two types: beta I waves, lowerfrequencies which disappear during mentalactivity, and beta II waves, higher frequencieswhich appear during tension and intense mentalactivity.
 
Gamma waves have frequencies between22 and 30 Hz with amplitude of less than 2 mVpeak-to-peak and are found when the subject ispaying attention or is having some other sensorystimulation.
 
Theta waves have a frequency rangebetween 4 to 7 Hz with amplitude of less than100mV. It
 
occurs mainly in the parietal and temporalregions in sleep and also in children when awake,and during emotional stress in some adults,particularly during disappointment and frustration.Sudden removal of something causing pleasurewill cause about 20 s of theta waves.
 
Delta waves have frequency contentbetween 0.5 and 4 Hz with an amplitude less than100 mV. It occurs during deep sleep, duringinfancy and in serious organic brain disease. Theywill occur after transactions of the upper brainstem separating the reticular activating systemfrom the cerebral cortex. They are found in thecentral cerebrum, mostly the parietal lobes.Five sets of images namely Normal Epilepsy, AbsenceEpilepsy, Simple Partial Epilepsy, Complex PartialEpilepsy and General Epilepsy are taken intoconsideration.3.
 
FEATURE EXTRACTIONFeature extraction process plays a very important roleon the classification. Fourier transformation method,discrete transformation method and continuoustransformation methods are normally available to extractfeatures that characterize EEG signals. The wavelettransform (WT) provides very general techniques whichcan be applied to many tasks in signal processing. Waveletsare ideally suited for the analysis of sudden short-durationsignal changes.In the proposed model, EEG signal analysis and featureextraction have been performed using Discrete WaveletTransform (DWT). The DWT is a extraordinary case of theWT that provides a compact representation of a signal intime and frequency that can be computed efficiently.
PredictionSVM BasedPrediction modelSVM TrainingFeature Extraction usingWavelet Toolbox inMATLAB
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010117http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
The DWT is defined by the following equation:
Ψ
(a,b)
(t) = 2
a/2
 
ψ (2
a/2
(t-b)) (1)where a is a scales and b is positions of the wavelet
mother ψ (
) is a time function with finite energy. Choosingscales and positions are based on powers of two, which arecalled dyadic scales and positions (a
 j=2
 – 
 j;
b
 j,k 
=2
 j
k) ( j
 
and
 
integers). Equation (1) shows that it is possible to build a
wavelet for any function by dilating a function ψ (
) with acoefficient 2 j, and translating the resulting function on a
grid whose interval is proportional to 2−j
.
The selection of appropriate wavelet and the number of decomposition levels is very important in analysis of signals using the WT. The number of decomposition levelsis chosen based on the dominant frequency components of the signal. The levels are chosen such that those parts of thesignal that correlate well with the frequencies required forclassification of the signal are retained in the waveletcoefficients. The smoothing feature of the Daubechieswavelet of order 2 (db2) made it more suitable to detectchanges of the signals. Thus, the wavelet coefficients arecomputed using db2. The frequency bands correspondingto different levels of decomposition for db2 with asampling frequency of 256 Hz. The discrete waveletcoefficients are computed using the MATLAB wavelettoolbox.The purpose of feature extraction is to reduce the sizeof the original dataset by measuring certain properties orfeatures that distinguish one input pattern from another.The various measurements based on statistical featuresfrom EEG are extracted. The extracted features provide thecharacteristics of the input type to the classifier byconsidering the description of the relevant properties of thesignals into a feature space.The statistical feature of the wavelet coefficients ineach subband such as energy, entropy, Minimum subband,maximum subband, mean, and standard deviation are usedto investigate the adequacy for the discrimination of normaland abnormal patients. The following statistical featureshave been derived using the following.
Entropy
is
 
the diminished capacity for spontaneouschanges in signals.Entropy =
 ji
 jiP jiP
,
),(log),(
(2)Where P(i, j)
 
reflects the distribution of the probabilityof occurrence of each signal (i , j are integer).
Energy
 
 – 
Provides the sum of squared elements in thewavelet. This is also known as uniformity or the angularsecond moment.The energy is computed using E is given by
n
 E=
x
i2
 /N
 
(3)
 i=1 
where x
i
is signal value, values are present in waves isdenoted as n. Total number of signal is N
 
Maximum Subband
 
 – 
It generate maximum of thewavelet coefficients in each subband is calculated usingM
ax
=Max(x
i
) (4)where max (xi) is maximum number of signal value.
Mean
 
 – 
It is defined as average value of a distributionof the wavelet coefficients in each subband which is givenby
n
 E=
∑x
i
 /N
 
(5)
 i=1 
where xi is signal and total number of signal is presentin the wavelet is N
 
Minimum Subband
 
 – 
calculate minimum of thewavelet coefficients in each subband is defined asM
in
=Min(x
i
) (6)Where min (xi) is minimum number of signal value.
Standard deviation
- standard deviation of eachsubb
and is defined as σ .This feature provide information
about the amount of change of the frequency distribution.
n
 
σ=∑(x
-µ)
2
(7)
 i=1
where ∑ is sum of squared elements in the wavelet,x is
signal value and µ is a mean of the correspondingsignal(xi).Thus a total of 21 statistical feature are extracted fromEEG signal for each subband for preparing dataset.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010118http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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