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Deployment of Intelligent Agents in Cognitive networks

Deployment of Intelligent Agents in Cognitive networks

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract — Every organization faces challenging task in the designing of the communication network in order to make its efficiency smoother by the increasing complexities. Therefore, we have to proposed a concept of cognitive network and how the intelligent agents are deployed to overcome the challenges. With the tremendous expansion of networks across the globe, the deployment of intelligent agents in cognitive networks contributes as an efficient, reliable and challenging task for the researchers. In this paper, we survey the existing research work on cognitive networks and later we provide the artificial intelligent techniques that are potentially suitable for the development of cognitive networks.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive network, Intelligent agents
Abstract — Every organization faces challenging task in the designing of the communication network in order to make its efficiency smoother by the increasing complexities. Therefore, we have to proposed a concept of cognitive network and how the intelligent agents are deployed to overcome the challenges. With the tremendous expansion of networks across the globe, the deployment of intelligent agents in cognitive networks contributes as an efficient, reliable and challenging task for the researchers. In this paper, we survey the existing research work on cognitive networks and later we provide the artificial intelligent techniques that are potentially suitable for the development of cognitive networks.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive network, Intelligent agents

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Published by: ijcsis on Oct 10, 2010
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
Deployment of Intelligent Agents inCognitive Networks
Huda Fatima Dr.Sateesh Kumar Pradhan Mohiuddin Ali Khan Dr. G.N.Dash
 
Dept. of CS Dept. of Comp.Engineering Dept. of Comp. Networks Dept. of Comp. ScienceJazan University King Khalid University Jazan University Sambalpur UniversityJazan, K.S.A Abha, K.S.A Jazan, K.S.A Orissa, Indiahudafatima@gmail.com sateeshind@yahoo.com moinkku@gmail.com gndash@sancharnet.in 
 Abstract
—Every organization faces challengingtask in the designing of the communicationnetwork in order to make its efficiency smootherby the increasing complexities. Therefore, wehave to proposed a concept of cognitive networkand how the intelligent agents are deployed toovercome the challenges.With the tremendousexpansion of networks across the globe, thedeployment of intelligent agents in cognitivenetworks contributes as an efficient, reliable andchallenging task for the researchers. In thispaper, we survey the existing research work oncognitive networks and later we provide theartificial intelligent techniques that arepotentially suitable for the development of cognitive networks.
  Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Cognitive network, Intelligent agents.
I.
 
INTRODUCTION
:
One of the fastest growing areas is the informationand communication technologies. These changeshave an immediate impact on diverse aspects of themodern society, which includes inter-humanrelations, economy, education & entertainment. Inthis respect, the development of reliable, flexible andfuture-proof infrastructure should be capable of increasing the users’ quality of life by providingservices such as e-health, e-learning and e-payments.In order to meet the demand of the increasedcomplexity, future networks should be easilymaintainable and their capabilities should becontinuously improved and upgraded by relying aslittle as possible on human intervention. Thereforethe network research community proposed a newconcept of networking: The Cognitive Network.What is a Cognitive Network and how are theintelligent agents deployed is what we havepresented here.
Cognitive networks
 In this section, we analyze several existingdefinitions for cognitive networks, and we argue thattwo elements are essential for developing a cognitivenetwork (CN): the knowledge representation and thecognition loop. Next, we discuss the framework proposed in [2] for introducing cognition tocommunication networks. The main part of thesection focuses on methods from AI that seemapplicable for developing CNs. We provide asummary of several types of intelligent agents (IAs),map them to the functional states of the cognitiveloop. As we go along, we also refer to existingresearch on CNs which makes use of the respectivetype of IA, where available. How it started? Theword cognitive refers to an entity that is able toperform some kind of conscious intellectual activitysuch as thinking, reasoning, learning or rememberingin order to make sense of its surroundings. This wordwas first used in communication networks to refer toa technology by Mitola as he introduced thecognitive radio [4].
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
We would like to emphasize that, according to thedictionary [9], the word cognitive used as anadjective to a noun means: of, relating to, being, orinvolving conscious intellectual activity (as thinking,reasoning, or remembering); based on or capable of being reduced to empirical factual knowledge.In [2], the authors define the CN as a network with acognitive process that can perceive current network conditions, plan, decide, act on those conditions,learn from the consequences of its actions, all whilefollowing end-to-end goals. This loop, the cognitionloop, senses the environment, plans actionsaccording to input from sensors and network policies, decides which scenario fits best its end-to-end purpose using a reasoning engine, and finallyacts on the chosen scenario as discussed in theprevious section. The system learns from the past(situations, plans, decisions, actions) and uses thisknowledge to improve the decisions in the future.This definition of CN does not explicitly mention theknowledge of the network; it only describes thecognitive loop and adds end-to-end goals that woulddistinguish it from CR or so called cognitive layers[2]. We consider this definition of CN incompletesince it lacks knowledge which is an importantcomponent of a cognitive system as discussed so farin this paper and also in [2,4,6,8].The cognitive process can operate in a centralizedway, spanning over a large network, or in a totallydistributed manner
 
at a device level. In the first case,it might be too expensive to centralize all thenetwork specific information that the cognition looprequires, while in the second case there might be toolittle knowledge available to pursue end-to-endnetwork goals. In reality, the deployment of thecognitive functionality in a network will depend onthe network specific problems and will be anengineering decision. However, it is important thatthe cognitive framework is designed in such way asto be modular, easily upgradeable and scalable inorder to be able to accommodate existing as well asnext generation technologies and applications.The capabilities of a Cognitive Network can behighly distributed or extremely centralized. Ingeneral, a Cognitive network is formed of a set of distributed cognitive entities (agents) which aresomehow “smart” as they have certain reasoningcapabilities to be connected to the network. Theentities in such a network interact with each other,they can cooperate, act selfishly or a combination of the two. While functioning in this environment, theentities are able to learn and take decisions in suchway as to reach an end-to-end goal. These end-to-end goals are dictated by the business and userrequirements [2,4]. Developing and maintaining sucha network is an extremely challenging task and hasenormous potential, especially in the area of network management.A Cognitive Network needs to evolve overtime: itsset of technologies has to be updated by removingdeprecated and adding new ones; its set of tools thathelp managing complexity should be added andremoved in a plug and play fashion. Thus, thearchitecture of cognitive network should be flexibleand should lead to a modular and highly scalableinfrastructure. Furthermore, the cognitive network must be self aware : it should be able to determineappropriate actions to achieve goals and to learnwhile doing all these. It should be self-configuring,self-optimizing, self-healing and self-protecting in acognitive way.In this paper, we analyze some recent trends in thedevelopment of communication networks andinvestigate in more detail the concept of cognitivenetwork. Cognitive networks are promising to be themajor step towards efficient and automaticmanagement of increasing complexity of communication networks.
Cyclic Process in Cognitive Network.
All systems that are able to adjust their functioningaccording to changes in their environment are basedon feedback information. Cognitive networks are noexception in this respect, so they will also use acontrol loop, also called cognition cycle [7, p. 7],feedback loop [2], context based adaptation loop [8].According to Thomas et al. [2], the loop employedby a cognitive network should be based on theconcept of the Observe-Orient-Decide-Act looporiginally used in the military, augmented bylearning and following end-to-end goals to achievecognition. In [8], the loop also has a communicatingcapability for communicating with other loops in adistributed environment.
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010
The cognition cycle as described by Mitola [7, p. 8]features the following states: observe, orient, plan,decide, act and learn. It uses the orient module forclassifying stimuli and does not explicitly encompasspolicies.Cycle management:In [10], the authors investigate a cognitive agent forwireless network selection which is designed to hidethe complexity of the wireless environment from theuser. The selection problem is decomposedinto four elements that enhance the agent to selectthe network which is most suitable to userpreferences. First, user’s feedback that the decisionmaking process will be used is captured. Second, theavailable services are evaluated against learned userpreferences. Third, the agent decides when to changeservices and which new service to select based onuser’s preferences, context and goals.Fourth, the value of previously unseen services ispredicted. Using this approach, the agentcontinuously monitors the wireless environment andselects the best service according to the currentmodel of user preferences. However, when the useris unsatisfied (or changes preferences), The model isupdated and a new selection is made to satisfypreferences.A Cognitive Resource Manager (CRM)and its conceptual architecture are introduced in[14]. The CRM’s functioning is based on a cognitioncycle adapted from Mitola [7] and aims at enablingautonomic optimization of the communication stack as a whole, thus acting as an intelligent verticalcalibration(Fig.1). The intelligence would be basedupon methods from the field of AI.Fig 1. Open Systems Interconnection (OSI)model
Loop for security
The CycSecure application [12] makes use of anincomplete cognitive loop. It uses daemons installedon machines in the network that collect localinformation and send it to the server when polled. Ahuman operator can examine and modify thenetwork model, query and view network statistics.The system is able to generate possible attack plansbased on the information gathered from the systemand the internal knowledge base. Based on theseattack plans, the human operator can decide forremedy measures to increase the security of thesystem.
Communication Requirements and researchdirections
In the history of telecommunications, developmenthas always been driven by humans need tocommunicate, i.e. reliably transmit ever increasingamount of information across increasing distances.However, communication networks becameincreasingly complex and more difficult to manage,requiring increasingly specialized tools and humanoperators for their maintenance, configuration andoptimization.From the user’s point of view thenecessities in the world of telecommunications, as itis today, are : higher bandwidth or alternativesolutions capable of accommodating the traffic .These necessities derive from the user’s thirst fordigital content.From the network operators’ point of view, some of the main necessities are: complexity, management,security, scalability, fault tolerance, fast integrationof new technologies and a good business model [6].The network operator has to create adequatepremises for delivering the digital content.These user’s and network operators necessities areactually forming the basis for research activitiescurrently underway in the area of cognitivenetworks. In general, research directions incommunications can be classified in 8 broadcategories: theory, signal processing, networks,software, user satisfaction, security, managementand next generation protocols and architectures. Inan attempt to obtain an objective big picture of thetrends in research areas as well as quantitativeestimation of the ongoing work, we used ontogeny, asemi-automatic ontology editor [6] to analyze the
124http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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