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A Performance Study on AES Algorithms

A Performance Study on AES Algorithms

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract— The Aim of this project is to find the performance comparative analysis of AES algorithms such as MARS, RC6, Rijndael, Serpent, Twofish algorithms in terms of speed, memory, time, encryption and decryption, key setup time, number of rounds, key sizes and also hardware considerations. Most of the AES algorithms, especially symmetric block ciphers, are based on the principle of substitution and transposition to encrypt a plain-text message and to produce a cipher-message. Those transformations are based on well-understood Mathematical problems using non-linear functions and linear modular algebra. Implementation of cryptographic algorithms mainly uses bitlevel operations and table look-ups. Bit-wise operators (XORs, AND/OR, etc.), substitutions, logical shifts and permutations are quite common operations. Such operations are well suited for their fast execution in hardware platforms. Furthermore, currently abundant memory resources in hardware platforms enhance encryption speed for the operations like substitution. These operators play an important role in analysis and comparison of the performance of the above mentioned AES algorithms, to evaluate simple, effective and efficient outcomes and also the information might be more secure.

Keywords-AES algorithms; Mars; RC6; Rijndeal; Sarpent; Two fish;
Abstract— The Aim of this project is to find the performance comparative analysis of AES algorithms such as MARS, RC6, Rijndael, Serpent, Twofish algorithms in terms of speed, memory, time, encryption and decryption, key setup time, number of rounds, key sizes and also hardware considerations. Most of the AES algorithms, especially symmetric block ciphers, are based on the principle of substitution and transposition to encrypt a plain-text message and to produce a cipher-message. Those transformations are based on well-understood Mathematical problems using non-linear functions and linear modular algebra. Implementation of cryptographic algorithms mainly uses bitlevel operations and table look-ups. Bit-wise operators (XORs, AND/OR, etc.), substitutions, logical shifts and permutations are quite common operations. Such operations are well suited for their fast execution in hardware platforms. Furthermore, currently abundant memory resources in hardware platforms enhance encryption speed for the operations like substitution. These operators play an important role in analysis and comparison of the performance of the above mentioned AES algorithms, to evaluate simple, effective and efficient outcomes and also the information might be more secure.

Keywords-AES algorithms; Mars; RC6; Rijndeal; Sarpent; Two fish;

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September2010
A Performance Study on AES Algorithms
B.D.C.N.Prasad
1
Dept. of Computer Applications,P V P Siddardha Institute of TechnologyVijayawada,Indiabdcnprasad@gmail.com
P Sita Rama Murty
3
Dept. of Computer Science & EngineeringSri Sai Aditya Institute of Science & TechnologyKakinada, Indiapsramam@yahoo.co.in
P E S N Krishna Prasad
2
Dept. of Computer Science & EngineeringAditya Engineering CollegeKakinada, Indiasurya125@gmail.com
K Madhavi
4
Dept. of CSEDadi Institute of TechnologyAnakapalli, Indiakolukulurimadhavi@yahoo.co.in
 Abstract
The Aim of this project is to find the performancecomparative analysis of AES algorithms such as MARS, RC6,Rijndael, Serpent, Twofish algorithms in terms of speed,memory, time, encryption and decryption, key setup time,number of rounds, key sizes and also hardware considerations.Most of the AESalgorithms, especially symmetric blockciphers, are basedonthe principle of substitution andtransposition to encrypt a plain-text message andto produce acipher-message. Those transformations are based on well-understoodMathematical problems using non-linear functionsand linear modular algebra.Implementation of cryptographic algorithms mainly uses bit-level operations andtable look-ups. Bit-wise operators (XORs,AND/OR, etc.), substitutions, logical shiftsand permutationsare quite common operations. Such operations are well suitedfortheir fast execution in hardware platforms. Furthermore,currently abundant memoryresources in hardware platformsenhance encryption speed for the operations likesubstitution.These operators playan important role in analysis andcomparison of the performance of the above mentioned AESalgorithms, to evaluate simple, effective and efficient outcomesand also the information might be more secure.Keywords-AES algorithms; Mars; RC6; Rijndeal;Sarpent;Two fish;
I.I
NTRODUCTION
Security is a broad topic and covers a multitude of sins,in its simplest form. It is concerned with making sure thatnosy people cannot read, or worse yet, modify messageintended for other recipients. It is concerned with peopletrying to access remote services that they are not authorizedto use. Security also deals with people trying to deny thatthey sent certain message.Network security problems can be divided roughly intofour intertwined areas:
Confidentiality,
Authentication and Integrity control
Denial of serviceCryptography, over the ages, has been practiced by manywho have devised ad-hoc techniques to meet some of theinformation security requirements. The last twenty yearshave been period of transition as the discipline to a broaderarea. There are now several international scientificconferences denoted exclusively to cryptography and alsoand International Association for Crypto-logic Research(IACR), aimed at fostering research in the area.There are two general types of cryptographic algorithms.1.Symmetric algorithms.2.Asymmetric algorithms.The current Digital Encryption Standard (DES) does nolonger satisfy the need for data security because of its short56-bit key. Such short keys can today be broken by bruteforce attacks. We are looking for newer and more flexiblealgorithms to replace DES. Some of the candidates for theAdvanced Encryption Standard (AES) are MARS encryptionalgorithm, RC6, Serpent, Rijndael, and Twofish. These aresymmetric key block ciphers use 128 bit blocks and supportsvariable key sizes (from 128 to 1248 bits). These useaddition and subtractions, S-boxes, fixed and data dependentrotations, and multiplications.The final AES selection was made on the basis of severaladditional characteristics:
computational efficiency and memoryrequirements on a variety of software andhardware, including smart cards
flexibility, simplicity and ease of implementationThe existing system consisted of files with literally nofile security standards like AES algorithms such as MARS,RC6, Rijndael, Serpent, and Twofish. AES algorithms aresymmetric cipher algorithms which are far better than DESalgorithms, since DES algorithms are limited key size withfixed number of blocks. So, we have chosen for finding thecomparison of AES algorithms to provide the security forData as well as networks and files. AES algorithms are to be
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September2010
implemented due to the following factors against whichseveral security measures had to be taken up:1.Reading data2.Manipulating and modifying data3.Illegal use of files4.Corrosion of data files5.Distortion of data transmissionThe main issue of (1) is
secrecy and confidentiality
.
Confidentiality
has always played an important role indiplomatic and military matters. Often Information muststore or transferred from one place to another without beingexposed to an opponent or enemy. Key management is alsorelated to
Confidentiality
. This deals with generating,distributing and storing keys. Items (2-4) are primarilyconcerned with
reliability
. Often the expression
integrity
isused as a measure of genuineness of data. Also computerfiles and networks must be protected against intruders andUnauthorized. Item 5 is different aspect of the security of theinformation.
 A.AES Algorithms
AES algorithms are symmetric cipher algorithmswith variable key sizes and blocks, also with number of rounds to encrypt and decrypt the data than DES algorithms.There are numerous algorithms in AES. From them we havechosen the following algorithms for finding the performanceanalysis on time, memory, key sizes, key setup time,encryption, and decryption and so on.The Chosen algorithms are as:
MARS encryption algorithm
RC6 Algorithm
Rijndael Algorithm
Serpent Algorithm
Twofish Algorithm
TABLE I. G
ENERAL
S
TRUCTURE
CipherTypeRoundsUsing
MARSExtendedFeistel32Variable Rotation,MultiplicationNon Cryptic RoundsRC6Feistel20Variable Rotation,MultiplicationRijndaelSquare10,12,14SerpentSP Network32BitsliceTwofishFeistel16
1)Mode
No operational modes are currently defined for theAES cipher. The Cipher Block Chaining (CBC) mode iswell-defined and well-understood for symmetric ciphers, andis currently required for all other ESP ciphers. This articlespecifies the use of the AES cipher and the other finalists inCBC mode within ESP. This mode requires an
 InitializationVector 
(IV) that is the same size as the block size. Use of arandomly generated IV prevents generation of identicalcipher text from packets which have identical data that spansthe first block of the cipher algorithm's block size.The IV is XOR'd with the first plaintext block before it isencrypted. Then for successive blocks, the previous ciphertext block is XOR'd with the current plaintext, before it isencrypted. For the use of CBC mode in ESP with 64-bitciphers.
2)Key Size
Some cipher algorithms allow for variable sized keys,while others only allow specific, pre-defined key sizes. Thelength of the key typically correlates with the strength of thealgorithm; thus larger keys are usually harder to break thanshorter ones. This article stipulates that all key sizes MUSTbe a multiple of 8 bits.The default key size that implementations MUST support128 bits. In addition, all of the ciphers accept key sizes of 192 and 256 bits.
TABLE II. K
EY SIZES
AlgorithmKey Sizes(bits)Default
MARS128 448*128RC6Variable up to 2040128Rijndael128,192,256128SerpentVariable up to 256**128Two fishVariable up to 256***128
MARS key lengths must be multiples of 32 bits.** Serpent keys are always padded to 256 bits. Thepadding consists of a "1" bit followed by "0" bits.*** Twofish keys, other than the default sizes, are alwayspadded with "0" bits up to the next default size.
3)Weak Keys
Some cipher algorithms have weak keys or keys thatMUST not be used due to their interaction with some aspectof the cipher's definition. If weak keys are discovered for theAES or any of the other finalists, then weak keys SHOULDbe checked for and discarded when using manual keymanagement. When using dynamic key management, weak key checks SHOULD NOT be performed as they are seen asan unnecessary added code complexity that could weaken theintended security.
4)Block Size and Padding
All of the algorithms described in this document use ablock size of sixteen octets (128 bits), mandatory for theAES. Some of the algorithms can handle larger block sizesas well. Padding is required by the algorithms to maintain a16-octet (128-bit) blocksize. Padding MUST be added, suchthat the data to be encrypted has a length that is a multiple of 16 octets. Because of the algorithm specific paddingrequirement, no additional padding is required to ensure thatthe cipher text terminates on a 4-octet boundary (i.e.maintaining a 16-octet blocksize guaranteesthat the ESP Pad
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September2010
Length and Next Header fields will be right aligned within a4-octet word
5) Rounds
This variable determines how many times a block isencrypted. While this variable MAY be negotiated, a defaultvalue MUST always exist when it is not negotiated.
AlgorithmNegotiableDefault of Rounds
MARSyes32RC6yes20Rijndaelyes10,12,14Serpentyes32Twofishyes16
 B.MARS Algorithm
MARS is a shared-key block cipher that works witha block size of 128 bit and a variable key size. The algorithmis a type-3 Feistel network which is word (32 bit) oriented.The word orientation should bring a performance forsoftware implementations on most computer architecturesavailable today. A fully optimized implementation isexpected to run at 100Mbit/second and hardware can achievean additional 10x speedup factor.
1)Operations
MARS algorithm uses a big variety of differentoperations:
 Additions, subtractions and xors:
These simpleoperations are used to mix data and key values together.Because xors are interleaved with additions and subtractionsthese operations do not commute with each other.
Table look-up:
Similar to the S-boxes in DES has alsoMARS cipher a table look-up. It uses a single table of 51232-bit words, simple called S-box. A problem of the tablelook-up is the slow software implementation (at least 3instructions per look-up). That's why S-box look-up is onlyused sparely in MARS where fast avalanche of the key bits isneeded.
Fixed rotations:
Data-dependent rotations: Datadependent rotations may lead to differential weaknesses.This problem is solved in MARS by combining theserotations with multiplications.
 Multiplications:
All multiplications in MARS are modulo232 which suits most modern computer architectures.Multiplications used to bea problem in cryptographicalgorithms because they were slow. Today is this no longerthe case. Most architecture can complete a multiplication in 2clock cycles. MARS algorithms uses 16 multiplications perblock. This should not be a big deal. For hardwarerealizations we have the problem that a multiplicator needsmuch more chip-space than adders or logical units.
C.Comparison with other AES Candidates
There are 4 other candidates for AES in the lastround. So they are all 128 bit block ciphers with variable keylength from 128 bit to at least 192 bit. All designs claim to besecure against all known attacks like differential, linear,known plaintext or cipher text and other attacks.
1)RC
RC6 is the submission of MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and the RSA-Laboratories. Similar to MARS itsplits the 128 bit blocks into four words in the algorithm, butthe algorithm is designed in a way that you can easily changeto two 64 bit words in newer architectures. RC6 is also aFeistel network. It uses the same type of operations exceptfrom look-up tables and fixed rotations. The algorithm ismore flexible than MARS about blocksize and number of rounds. The AES submission is optimized for 128 bit blocksand 20 rounds. Several performance test showed that RC6 isslower than MARS for encryption and for the key setup. Butit uses less memory because there are no look-up tables.
2)Rijndael
Rijndael is the submission of the Belgium Proton WorldInt.and the Katholieke Universities Leuven, Belgium. Thisalgorithm is quite different from MARS. It works withGalois Field GF(128) arithmetic and handles the input blocksas matrices of bytes. They define several operations to thesematrices as ByteSub, ShiftRow, MixColumn andAddRoundKey. For detailed information about theseoperations consult [Rijndael99]. Several combinations of these operations define a round. Depending on the key lengthwhich is in the range from 128 to 256 bits a fixed number of rounds has to be executed. This cipher is not a Feistelnetwork. Several performance tests showed that Rijndael isabout the same speed in encryption and decryption asMARS. But the key expansion for keys of the same length issignificant slower.
3)Serpen
Serpent is a submission from three universities(Cambridge University, England; Technion, Haifa, Israel;University of Bergen, Norway). Therefore it's the onlyalgorithm where no company stands behind. The algorithm ispretty similar to DES, it uses permutations, xors, fixedrotations and shifts and constant tablelook-up's. The firstversion of the algorithm even used the same S-boxes as DES.The key can vary from 128 to 256 bit. The algorithm worksinternally also with 4 words as RC6 and MARS.Performance tests that the encryption of Serpent is about25% faster than the MARS encryption. But the keyexpansion is significant slower. An implementation of Serpent also uses a lot of memory because of the look-uptables.
4)Twofish
Twofish is the submission from a company calledCounterpane. It is a 16 round Feistel cipher that works withkey dependent 8x8 bit look-up tables, 4 by 4 matrices overthe Galois field GF(128), a pseudo-Hadamard transform,permutations and rotations. The detailed description of thesefunctions can be found in [Twofish]. The key length variesalso from 128 bit to 256 bit as in most other AES candidates.Performance tests showed that the encryption speed of Twofish is about the same as for MARS, but the Twofish keysetup is significant faster.
130http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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