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Hybrid Fingerprint Image compression and Decompression Technique

Hybrid Fingerprint Image compression and Decompression Technique

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract- In this paper a biometric authentication system based on Fingerprint. A fingerprint is the representation of the epidermis of a finger. It consists of a pattern of interleaved ridges and valleys. Like everything in the body fingerprint ridges form through a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Finger prints are fully formed at about seven months of fetus development. Fingerprint ridges don’t change
throughout the life of an individual except in case of accidents such as cuts on the fingertip (or) burns on the fingertip. In this paper we proposed a hybrid model to compress the fingerprints.

Keywords: Biometrics, Enrollment Authentication, compression, Decompression.
Abstract- In this paper a biometric authentication system based on Fingerprint. A fingerprint is the representation of the epidermis of a finger. It consists of a pattern of interleaved ridges and valleys. Like everything in the body fingerprint ridges form through a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Finger prints are fully formed at about seven months of fetus development. Fingerprint ridges don’t change
throughout the life of an individual except in case of accidents such as cuts on the fingertip (or) burns on the fingertip. In this paper we proposed a hybrid model to compress the fingerprints.

Keywords: Biometrics, Enrollment Authentication, compression, Decompression.

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Published by: ijcsis on Oct 10, 2010
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Hybrid Fingerprint Image compression andDecompression Technique
*Dr.R.Seshadri,
,B.Tech,,M.E,Ph.D
 **Yaswanth Kumar.Avulapti ,M.C.A, M.Tech, (PhD)***Dr.M.Usha Rani M.C.A,PhD*Director, S.V.U.Computer Center S.V.University, Tirupati**Research Scholar, Dept of Computer Science, S.V.University, Tirupati
E-mail:yaswanthkumar_1817@yahoo.co.in
***Associate Professor, Dept. of Computer Science,, SPMVV, Tirupati
Abstract
In this paper a biometric authenticationsystem based on Fingerprint. A fingerprint isthe representation of the epidermis of a finger.It consists of a pattern of interleaved ridgesand valleys.Like every thing in the body fingerprintridges form through a combination of geneticand environmental factors. Finger prints arefully formed at about seven months of fetusdevelopment. Fingerprint ridges don’t changethroughout the life of an individual exceptincase of accidents such as cuts on thefingertip (or) burns on the fingertip. In thispaper we proposed a hybrid model tocompress the fingerprints.
Keywords
:Biometrics,EnrollmentAuthentication, compression, Decompression.
Introduction
The term Biometrics is derived fromthe Greek word bio (life) and metrics (tomeasure). Basically it is a method of identifying a person based on his/herphysiological or behavioral characteristicssuch as Fingerprints, Iris, Face, Handgeometry, Retinal scan,,DNA,Signature,KeyStroke, Voice,Gait,Ear,Palm print, Dentalradiographs. Among all the biometrictechniques, fingerprint recognition is the mostpopular method and is successfully used inmany applicationsBiometrics is a rapidly evolvingwonderful technology which has been widelyused in forensics applications such as criminalidentification and prison security.Biometrics(Fingerprints) can be used toprevent unauthorized access to a computer.The main objective of the fingerprintimage compression is to reduce the number of bits as much as possible by keeping theresolution and quality of the fingerprint whiledecompressed as same as to the originalfingerprint image.
Fingerprint Identification System
A finger print system works in twodifferent modes they are Enrollment mode
 
and Authentication mode as shown in figure.1
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010134http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Enrollment mode in which fingerprint systemis used to identify and collect the relatedinformation about the person and his/herfingerprint image.Authentication mode in which fingerprintsystem is used to identify the person who isdeclared to be him/her.
Enrollment ModeAuthentication Mode
Matching Score
Fig.1.Enrollment and Authentication of aFingerprint systemNeed for fingerprint compression
Let us see this scenario the spatialresolution of the cinefilm is generallyassumed to be equivalent to a digital matrix of at least 1000 by 1000 pixels, each with up to256 gray levels (8 bit or one byte) of contrastinformation.The Figure.2 derives from this principalparameter some examples for requirements ondigital image communication and archival in acatheterization laboratory with low to mediumvolume.Film DigitalSpatialresolution4linepairs/mm1024 by1024 pixelsDatacapacity perimage1MBData rate 30 imagesper seconds30 MB/SecMedia one film 4-CDs
Fig.2.Replacement of cine film by digitalImaging with high resolution
In this scenario the enormous data rateof 30 Megabyte per second has to besupported. This is much faster than evenadvanced ATM networks (offering less than20 MB/s or 160 Mbit/s).Looking for existing off-line media real-timedisplay from CD-R would require a CD-Rplayer with a data rate of 200X, while thefastest players available presently deliver 50X(1X stands for a data rate of 150 KB/sec). Thetotal amount of data required in thisscenario is even more frightening. To storethese images and make them available overnetwork (e.g. the internet), compressiontechniques are needed.
Steps involved in Fingerprint compression
1) Specifying the rate (bits available) anddistortion parameters for the targetfingerprint image2) Dividing the fingerprint data into variousclasses based on their importance3) Dividing the available bit budget amongthese classes such that the distortion isminimum.4) Quantize each class separately using thebit allocation5) Encode each class separately and write tothe file
Finger printAcquisitionFeatureExtractionTemplateFinger PrintAcuisitionFeatureExtractionMatching
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010135http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Steps involved in Fingerprint decompression
1) Read the fingerprint quantized data fromfile using the decoder2)Dequantize the fingerprint data(Recerse of step 4)3)Rebuild the Fingerprint Image(Reverse of step 2)
Proposed Fingerprint Image CompressionSystem
We proposed a Fingerprint imagecompression system in which the fingerprintimages are compressed by Losslesscompression technique called Run lengthEncoding and Decompressed by Huffmancoding.It is also called as Hybrid technique.A Fingerprint compression systemconsists of two blocks namely Encoder andDecoder as shown in the fig.3Fingerprint FingerprintCompression Decompression
Fig.3.Fingerprint image compression usingRun length Encoding & Decompressedusing Huffman codingSteps in Proposed Fingerprint compression
1) Specifying the bits available and distortionparameters for the target fingerprint image2) Dividing the fingerprint data into variousclasses based on their importance3) Dividing the available bit budget amongthese classes such that the distortion isminimum.4) Quantize each class separately using the bitallocation5) Encode each class separately using an RunLength encoder and write to the file
Steps involved in Fingerprint decompression
1) Read the fingerprint quantized data fromfile using the Huffman decoder2)Dequantize the fingerprint data(Reverse of step 4)3)Reconstructed the Fingerprintimage(Reverseof step 2)In the Run length encoding theFingerprint images with repeating grey valuesalong rows or columns can be compressed bystoring "runs" of identical grey values asshown in the fig.4 & fig 4.b
Fig.4.aRun length encoding the FingerprintImages
This a very simple fingerprintcompression method used for chronologicaldata.The run length encoding replaces thesequences of identical pixels called the runs
OriginalFinger printRun LengthEncoding
 
QuantizerEncoder
R
 
econstructedFinger print
HuffmanEncoding
De-QuantizerDecoder
 
Finger printGrey value 1Repetition 1
 
Finger printGrey value 2Repetition 2
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010136http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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