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Data Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Genetic Based Biometrics

Data Security in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks using Genetic Based Biometrics

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract— A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring, dynamic, multi hop radio network without any fixed infrastructure. MANETs are collections of wireless mobile devices with restricted broadcast range and resources and communication is achieved by relaying data along appropriate routes that are dynamically discovered and maintained through collaboration between the nodes. The main challenge in the design of such networks is how to prevent the attacks against data such as unauthorized data modification, impersonation etc. Biometrics provides possible solutions for this security problem in MANET since it has the direct connection with user identity and needs little user interruption. So, researchers have been investigating ways to use biometric features of the user rather than memorable password or passphrase, in an attempt to produce tough and repeatable cryptographic keys. In this paper such a security system based on Biometrics and Genetic algorithm which is providing data security in MANET is presented.

Keywords-– Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Data Security, Biometrics, Genetic Algorithm.
Abstract— A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring, dynamic, multi hop radio network without any fixed infrastructure. MANETs are collections of wireless mobile devices with restricted broadcast range and resources and communication is achieved by relaying data along appropriate routes that are dynamically discovered and maintained through collaboration between the nodes. The main challenge in the design of such networks is how to prevent the attacks against data such as unauthorized data modification, impersonation etc. Biometrics provides possible solutions for this security problem in MANET since it has the direct connection with user identity and needs little user interruption. So, researchers have been investigating ways to use biometric features of the user rather than memorable password or passphrase, in an attempt to produce tough and repeatable cryptographic keys. In this paper such a security system based on Biometrics and Genetic algorithm which is providing data security in MANET is presented.

Keywords-– Mobile Ad hoc Networks, Data Security, Biometrics, Genetic Algorithm.

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 DataSecurityinMobileAdHocNetworksusingGeneticBasedBiometrics
B. Shanthini, Research Scholar       
CSE Department     Anna University          Chennai, India          bshanthini@gmail.com                
S. Swamynathan, AssistantProfessor       
CSE Department     Anna University          Chennai, India         swamyns@annauniv.edu          
 Abstract  
 A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a self        configuring, dynamic, multi hop radio network without any fixed          infrastructure. MANETs are collections of wireless mobile        devices with restricted broadcast range and resources and          communication is achieved by relaying data along appropriate        routes that are dynamically discovered and maintained through          collaboration between the nodes. The main challenge in the        design of such networks is how to prevent the attacks against      data such as unauthorized data modification, impersonation etc.    Biometrics provides possible solutions for this security problem                in MANET since it has the direct connection with user identity          and needs little user interruption.So, researchers have been          investigating ways to use biometric features of the user rather        than memorable password or passphrase, in an attempt to         produce tough and repeatable cryptographic keys. In this paper        such a security system based on Biometrics and Genetic        algorithm which is providing data security in MANET is       presented.    
 Keywords-MobileAdhocNetworks,DataSecurity, Biometrics,GeneticAlgorithm.
I.INTRODUCTION               Mobile ad hoc networks are seen as autonomous that can be        quickly formed, on demand, for specific tasks and mission          support. Communication generally happens through wireless       links, in which nodes within a radio range communicate and          coordinate to create a virtual and temporary communication          infrastructure for data routing and data transmission. MANET            can operate in isolation or in coordination with a wired network          through a gateway node participating in both networks. This       flexibility along with their self-organizing capabilities, are        someof their biggest strengths, as well as their biggest security          weaknesses.   The applications of MANET include the foremost     situations such as emergency/crisis management, military,    healthcare, disaster relief operations and intelligent     transportation systems. So message security plays a vital role in          data transmission in MANET. However, because of the        absence of an established infrastructure or centralized          administration,implementation of hard-cryptographic        algorithms is a challenging prospect. So, in this paper, we         present a novel security method using genetic based biometric        cryptography for message security in mobile ad hoc networks.   
 A.Security challenges in MANET     
Wireless ad hoc networks are vulnerable tovariousattacks       [1]. Adversaries may attempt passive and active attacks to gain          unauthorized access to classified information, modify the        information, delete the information or disrupt the information          flow. The best way to protect data information in a most fine-      granular way is by providing security at theapplication layer. It     is highly desirable to handle data confidentiality and integrity          in applicationlayer, since this is the easiest way to protect data         from altering, fabrication and compromise. With the rapid          evolution of wireless technology the reliance of ad hoc        networks to carry mission critical information is rapidly          growing. This is especially important in a military scenario         where strategic and tactical information is sent.Therefore the        ability to achieve a highly secure authentication is becoming          more critical.    Numerous countermeasuressuch as strong authentication,    encrypting and decrypting the messages using traditional     cryptographic algorithms and redundant transmissioncan be        used to tackle these attacks. Even though these traditional     approaches play an important role in achieving confidentiality,    integrity, authentication and non-repudiation, these are not     sufficient for more sensitive and mission-critical applications       and they can address only a subset of the threats. Moreover,    MANETs [2]cannot support complex computations or high          communication overhead due to the limited memory and          limited computation power of mobile nodes.   
 B.Necessity of BiometricsSecurity   
For mission-critical applications such as a military          application may have higher requirements regarding data or       information security. In such a scenario, we may design the        security system combining both biometrics and cryptography.   Biometric based security scheme overcome the limitations of         traditional security solutions. Biometricsrefers to the methods       for uniquely recognizing humans based upon one or more        intrinsic physical or behavioral traits like fingerprints, iris,    retina scans, hand, face, ear geometry, hand vein, nail bed,    DNA, palm print, signature, voice, keystroke or mouse        dynamics, and gait analysis etc.   
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010149http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Biometric technologies have confirmed its importance in          the fields such as security, access control and monitoring          applications. The tradeoffs among these biometric        technologies really depend on the application and security          level involved. The best biometric technology [3] thatcan          easily be deployable in ad hoc networks is fingerprint     recognition. Fingerprints have been successfully used in          civilian identification for years because of their       unchangeability during the human life time and uniqueness of         each individual. As biometrics can't be borrowed, stolen, or       forgotten, and forging is practically impossible, it has been           presented as a natural identity tool that offers greater security          and convenience than traditional methods of personal     recognition.   Even though biometric has advantages, it also raises many          security andprivacy concerns as given below:    i.Biometric is authentic but not secret.   ii.Biometric cannot be revoked or cancelled.   iii.If a biometric is lost once, it is compromised forever.   iv.Cross-matching can be used to track individuals without     their consent.   To overcome these disadvantages, instead of using the        original biometric, a set of features are taken from it and          transformed using genetic algorithm. If a biometric is       compromised, it can be simply reenrolled using another feature        set and another genetic operation, thus providing revocability          and the privacy of the biometric is preserved.   
C.Genetic Algorithms   
Genetic algorithms [4] are a family of computational     modelsinspired by natural evolution. They belong to the field          of evolutionary computation and are based on three main          operators: Selection selects the fittest individuals, called           parents that contribute to the reproduction of the population at     the next generation, Crossover combines two parents to form                children for the next generation and Mutation applies random                changes to individual parents to form children.Two-point     crossover operator is used here which has the ability to generate,     promote, and juxtapose building blocks to form the optimal     strings.   This paper is organized into 4 sections. Section 1 introduces       the background and initiatives of the research. It also discusses       the challenges of message security, the necessity of biometric        securityin MANET and Genetic algorithms. Section 2 explains       the related research works that has been done to provide        security in MANET. Section 3 proposes a new security scheme        for MANET which combines genetic algorithm and biometrics.   Section 4 contains conclusion and suggestions for future        research.   II.RELATEDWORK               Afew research works that has been done for data security          in MANET, the various approachesofbiometric securityand          Genetic algorithms in securityare briefly presented.   Qinghan Xiao [5] introduced a new strategy for       authentication of mobile users. Each user has a profile which          contains all the information of the ID holders. The group leader       also maintains the biometric templates of the group members.   Instead of a central authentication server, the group leaders act     as distributed authenticators. Each group has a shared          cryptographic key which is used for cryptographic        communication within the group. The proposed approach is       designed for high security small group coalition operations and          may not be suitable for enterprise usage.   Jie Liuet al. [6] proposed an optimal biometric-based          continuous authentication scheme in MANET which          distinguished two classes of authentications: user-to-device and          device-to-network. This model focused on the user-to-device        class and it can optimally control whether or not to perform                authentication as well as which biometrics to use to minimize        the usage of system resources.   B Ananda Krishna et al. [7] depicted a model which used          multiple algorithms for encryption and decryption. Each time a         data packet is sent to the application layer it is encrypted using          one of these randomly selected algorithms. When responses are        analyzed they give a random pattern and difficult to know               neither algorithms nor keys. The proposed scheme worked          well forheavily loaded networks with high mobility.   Zarza L et al. [8] explained the context of the study of         Genetic Algorithms as an aiding tool for generating and          optimizing security protocols. This paper explains how security           protocolscan be represented as binary strings, how GA tools       are used to define genomeinterpretationin optimization           problems.   B. Shanthini et al. [9] explained Cancelable Biometric-      Based Security System (CBBSS), where cancelable biometrics       is used for data security in mobile ad hoc networks.Fingerprint     feature of the receiver is coupled with the tokenized random                data by using inner-product algorithm and thisproduct is       discretized based on a threshold to produce a set of private         binary code which is acting as a cryptographic key in this       system.   A. Jagadeesanet al. [10]     
,   
 proposedan efficient approach           based on multimodal biometrics(Iris and fingerprint) for       generating a secure cryptographic key,where the security is       further enhanced with the difficulty of factoringlarge        numbers. At first, the features, minutiae points and texture         properties are extracted from the fingerprint and iris images       respectively. Then, the extracted features are fused at the        feature levelto obtain the multi-biometric template. Finally, a         multi-biometrictemplate is used for generating a 256-bit     cryptographic key.   III.PROPOSEDWORK               In this proposed Genetic-Based Biometric Security System                (GBBSS), a genetic two-point crossover operator is applied on           biometricfeature set and is used for data security in mobile ad          hoc networks.The main objective of the proposed security          scheme is to improvise the existing data security approaches       for MANET to suit technology enhancements and to study the        network performance.   
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010150http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 A.Generation of Genetic-BasedBiometric Key   
In this model allthe group members maintain the biometric        templates of the other group members. Suppose a member       wants to send a message to any other member, the receiver’s       fingerprintis divided into slices and featureset taken from the        slices is undergone a genetic two-point crossover operation and          the result is thecryptographickey in thissystem. Generation of         cryptographic key is shown in figure 1.   
Fingerprint      
Figure 1.   Figure 1. Generation of cryptographic key from the finger print features.   
The same key is generated by the receiver by using his        biometric and the same sort of cross over operations and is       used for decryption.   
Example:     01011100 1010000011111010 00110101        Parent      00110011 1111000011110000 11001100         After Crossover        01011100 1111000011110000 00110101        Children          00110011 1010000011111010 11001100         
If this biometric based key is compromised a new one can           be issued by using a different set of features and different cross       over operation and the compromised one is rendered          completely useless.It can also be an application specific that is       different sets of fingerprint features can be used with different     cross over operations to generate respective cryptographic key          fordifferent applications.   
 B.Securing the Data    
Data is secured by applying this cryptographic key to         encrypt the actual message using a simple cryptographic        algorithmsay Fiestel algorithm. The encryption and decryption           processes are specified by the formulae:    
C = E            
KR               
( P ) and P = D             
KR               
( C )      
where P Plain Text     C -Cipher Text     KR -Key created by Receivers Biometric        E -Encryption Algorithm                D -Decryption Algorithm                In Fiestal algorithm, a block of size N is dividedinto two         halves, of length N/2, the left half called XL and right half         called XR. The output of the ith round is determined from the        output of the (i-1)th round. The same key is used for all     iterations without generating sub keys. Also the number of         iterations performed is reduced to show that security can be        achieved by using simple algorithm. For example if the         plaintext is of 512 bytes, then encryption is performed for       every 64 bits and the process is repeated until all 512 bytes are        encrypted. Fiestel structure is given in figure 2. [1].   
Figure 2. Fiestel Algorithm                
Algorithm forEncryption          
:     
1.Divide the plaintext into two blocks of size, 32 bytes,    XL and XR              2.For I = 1 to 32         Do XL = XL XOR Key          XR = F (XL) XOR XR              Swap XL, XR              Join XL, XR              3.Repeat step 2 until the entire plaintext is encrypted          Algorithm for Decryption          
:     
Do the reverse operation of Encryption process.   
 
Cryptographic Key          
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010151http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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