A Pilot Based RLS Channel Estimation for LTESC-FDMA in High Doppler Spread
M. M. Rana
Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringKhulna University of Engineering and TechnologyKhunla, Bangladesh
Main challenges for a terminal implementation areefficient realization of the inner receiver, especially for channelestimation (CE) and equalization. In this paper, pilot basedrecursive least square (RLS) channel estimator technique isinvestigate for a long term evolution (LTE) single carrier-frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system in highDoppler spread environment. This CE scheme uses adaptive RLSestimator which is able to update parameters of the estimatorcontinuously, so that knowledge of channel and noise statisticsare not required. Simulation results show that the RLS CEscheme with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB betterperformances compared with 1.5 kHz Doppler frequency.
hannel estimation, LTE, RLS, SC-FDMA.
I. INTRODUCTIONThe 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) membersstarted a feasibility study on the enhancement of the universalterrestrial radio access (UTRA), to improve the mobile phonestandard to cope with future requirements. This project wascalled long term evolution (LTE) , . LTE usesorthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) fordownlink and single carrier-frequency division multipleaccess (SC-FDMA) for uplink transmission . A highlyefficient way to cope with the frequency selectivity of wideband channel is OFDMA. OFDMA is an effectivetechnique for combating multipath fading and for high bit ratetransmission over mobile wireless channels. Channelestimation (CE) has been successfully used to improve thesystem performance. It can be employed for the purpose of detecting received signal, improve signal-to-noise ratio(SNR), channel equalization, cochannel interference (CCI)rejection, and improved the system performance [3-5].In general, CE techniques can be divided into threecategories such as pilot CE, blind CE, and semi-blind CE ,. Pilot CE techniques offer low computational complexityand good performance . The blind CE techniques exploitthe statistical behavior of the received signals and require alarge amount of data . Semi-blind CE methods are used acombination of data aided and blind methods . The pilotCE algorithm requires probe sequences; the receiver can usethis probe sequence to reconstruct the transmitted waveform[6-8]. Pilot symbols can be placed either at the beginning of each burst as a preamble or regularly through the burst. Pilotsequences are transmitted at certain positions of the SC-FDMA frequency time pattern, in its place of data.Adaptive CE has been, and still is, an area of active researchtopics, playing imperative roles in an ever growing number of applications such as wireless communications where thechannel is rapidly time-varying. Signal processing techniquesthat use recursively estimated, time varying models arenormally called adaptive. Different adaptive CE algorithmshave been proposed over the years for the purpose of updatingthe channel coefficient. The least mean square (LMS) method,its normalized version (NLMS), the affine projectionalgorithm (APA), as well as the recursive least square (RLS)method are well known examples of such CE algorithms. Thewell known LMS/NLMS CE algorithms are attractive from acomputational complexity point of view but their convergencebehavior for highly correlated input signals is poor. The RLSCE method resolves this trouble, but at the expense of increased complexity. A very large number of fast RLS CEmethods have been developed over the years, but regrettably,it seems that the better a fast RLS CE method is in terms of computational efficiency and numerical stability. In addition,the RLS algorithm has the recursive inversion of an estimateof the autocorrelation matrix of the input signal as itscornerstone, problems arise, if the autocorrelation matrix isrank deficient.In this paper, we investigate the adaptive RLS CE methodin the LTE SC-FDMA systems in high Doppler spreadenvironment. This CE method uses adaptive estimator whichis able to update parameters of the estimator continuously so
that knowledge of channel and noise statistics are notrequired. Simulation results show that the RLS CE schemewith 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB better performancescompared with 1500 Hz Doppler frequency.We use the following notations throughout this paper: boldface lower letter is used to represent vector. Superscripts
denote the conjugate and conjugate transpose of thecomplex vector
respectively.The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: sectionII describes wireless communication systems and LTE SC-FDMA systems model is describes in section III. The RLS CEscheme is presented in section IV, and its performance is
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010161http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500