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A Pilot Based RLS Channel Estimation for LTE SC-FDMA in High Doppler Spread

A Pilot Based RLS Channel Estimation for LTE SC-FDMA in High Doppler Spread

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract — Main challenges for a terminal implementation are efficient realization of the inner receiver, especially for channel estimation (CE) and equalization. In this paper, pilot based recursive least square (RLS) channel estimator technique is investigate for a long term evolution (LTE) single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system in high Doppler spread environment. This CE scheme uses adaptive RLS estimator which is able to update parameters of the estimator continuously, so that knowledge of channel and noise statistics are not required. Simulation results show that the RLS CE scheme with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB better performances compared with 1.5 kHz Doppler frequency.

Keywords— Channel estimation, LTE, RLS, SC-FDMA.
Abstract — Main challenges for a terminal implementation are efficient realization of the inner receiver, especially for channel estimation (CE) and equalization. In this paper, pilot based recursive least square (RLS) channel estimator technique is investigate for a long term evolution (LTE) single carrier frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system in high Doppler spread environment. This CE scheme uses adaptive RLS estimator which is able to update parameters of the estimator continuously, so that knowledge of channel and noise statistics are not required. Simulation results show that the RLS CE scheme with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB better performances compared with 1.5 kHz Doppler frequency.

Keywords— Channel estimation, LTE, RLS, SC-FDMA.

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Published by: ijcsis on Oct 10, 2010
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03/04/2013

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A Pilot Based RLS Channel Estimation for LTESC-FDMA in High Doppler Spread
M. M. Rana
Department of Electronics and Communication EngineeringKhulna University of Engineering and TechnologyKhunla, Bangladesh
Email: mrana928@yahoo.com
 Abstract—
Main challenges for a terminal implementation areefficient realization of the inner receiver, especially for channelestimation (CE) and equalization. In this paper, pilot basedrecursive least square (RLS) channel estimator technique isinvestigate for a long term evolution (LTE) single carrier-frequency division multiple access (SC-FDMA) system in highDoppler spread environment. This CE scheme uses adaptive RLSestimator which is able to update parameters of the estimatorcontinuously, so that knowledge of channel and noise statisticsare not required. Simulation results show that the RLS CEscheme with 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB betterperformances compared with 1.5 kHz Doppler frequency.
 Keywords— C 
hannel estimation, LTE, RLS, SC-FDMA.
I. INTRODUCTIONThe 3rd generation partnership project (3GPP) membersstarted a feasibility study on the enhancement of the universalterrestrial radio access (UTRA), to improve the mobile phonestandard to cope with future requirements. This project wascalled long term evolution (LTE) [1], [2]. LTE usesorthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) fordownlink and single carrier-frequency division multipleaccess (SC-FDMA) for uplink transmission [1]. A highlyefficient way to cope with the frequency selectivity of wideband channel is OFDMA. OFDMA is an effectivetechnique for combating multipath fading and for high bit ratetransmission over mobile wireless channels. Channelestimation (CE) has been successfully used to improve thesystem performance. It can be employed for the purpose of detecting received signal, improve signal-to-noise ratio(SNR), channel equalization, cochannel interference (CCI)rejection, and improved the system performance [3-5].In general, CE techniques can be divided into threecategories such as pilot CE, blind CE, and semi-blind CE [10],[11]. Pilot CE techniques offer low computational complexityand good performance [12]. The blind CE techniques exploitthe statistical behavior of the received signals and require alarge amount of data [13]. Semi-blind CE methods are used acombination of data aided and blind methods [11]. The pilotCE algorithm requires probe sequences; the receiver can usethis probe sequence to reconstruct the transmitted waveform[6-8]. Pilot symbols can be placed either at the beginning oeach burst as a preamble or regularly through the burst. Pilotsequences are transmitted at certain positions of the SC-FDMA frequency time pattern, in its place of data.Adaptive CE has been, and still is, an area of active researchtopics, playing imperative roles in an ever growing number of applications such as wireless communications where thechannel is rapidly time-varying. Signal processing techniquesthat use recursively estimated, time varying models arenormally called adaptive. Different adaptive CE algorithmshave been proposed over the years for the purpose of updatingthe channel coefficient. The least mean square (LMS) method,its normalized version (NLMS), the affine projectionalgorithm (APA), as well as the recursive least square (RLS)method are well known examples of such CE algorithms. Thewell known LMS/NLMS CE algorithms are attractive from acomputational complexity point of view but their convergencebehavior for highly correlated input signals is poor. The RLSCE method resolves this trouble, but at the expense of increased complexity. A very large number of fast RLS CEmethods have been developed over the years, but regrettably,it seems that the better a fast RLS CE method is in terms of computational efficiency and numerical stability. In addition,the RLS algorithm has the recursive inversion of an estimateof the autocorrelation matrix of the input signal as itscornerstone, problems arise, if the autocorrelation matrix isrank deficient.In this paper, we investigate the adaptive RLS CE methodin the LTE SC-FDMA systems in high Doppler spreadenvironment. This CE method uses adaptive estimator whichis able to update parameters of the estimator continuously so
 
that knowledge of channel and noise statistics are notrequired. Simulation results show that the RLS CE schemewith 500 Hz Doppler frequency has 3 dB better performancescompared with 1500 Hz Doppler frequency.We use the following notations throughout this paper: boldface lower letter is used to represent vector. Superscripts
x
*
 and
x
T
denote the conjugate and conjugate transpose of thecomplex vector
x
respectively.The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: sectionII describes wireless communication systems and LTE SC-FDMA systems model is describes in section III. The RLS CEscheme is presented in section IV, and its performance is
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010161http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
analyzed in section V. Finally, some concluding remarks aregiven in section VI.II. WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEMSNowadays, cellular mobile phones have become animportant tool and part of daily life. In the last decade, cellularsystems have experienced fast development and there arecurrently about two billion users over the world. The idea of cellular mobile communications is to divide large zones intosmall cells, and it can provide radio coverage over a widerarea than the area of one cell. This concept was developed byresearchers at AT & T Bell laboratories during the 1950s and1960s. The initial cellular system was created by nippontelephone & telegraph (NTT) in Japan, 1979. From then on,the cellular mobile communication has evolved.The mobile communication systems are frequentlyclassified as different generations depending of the serviceoffered. The first generation (1G) comprises the analogcommunication techniques, and it was mainly built onfrequency modulation (FM) and frequency division multipleaccesses (FDMA). Digital communication techniquesappeared in the second generation (2G) systems, and mainaccess schemes are time division multiple access (TDMA) andcode division multiple access (CDMA). The two mostcommonly accepted 2G systems are global system for mobile(GSM) and interim standard-95 (IS-95). These systems mostlyoffer speech communication, but also data communicationlimited to rather low transmission rates. The concept of thethird generation (3G) system started operations on October,2002 in Japan. The 3GPP members started a feasibility studyon the enhancement of the universal terrestrial radio access(UTRA) in December 2004, to improve the mobile phonestandard to cope with future requirements. This project wascalled LTE. LTE uses SC-FDMA for uplink transmission andOFDMA for downlink transmission. Fig. 1 summarizes theevolution path of cellular mobile communications systems.
Fig. 1. Evolution path in mobile communication systems.
III. LTE SC-FDMA SYSTEMS DESCRIPTIONIn this section, we briefly explain LTE SC-FDMA systemmodel, fading channel statistics, and received signal model.A.
 
Baseband system modelA baseband block diagram for the communications systemunder investigation is shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Block diagram of a LTE SC-FDMA system.
At the transmitter, a baseband multiple phase shift keyingmodulator takes binary sequence and produces the signalingwaveforms
iiiiii
2Em(t) = cos(
ω
t +
α
), 0 < t < TT2E= [cos(
α
) cos(
ω
t) - sin(
α
) sin(
ω
t)]T= ab(t) + cd(t), (1)
 where T is the symbol duration, E is the energy of 
i
m(t),
 
ω
= 2
π
f, f is the carrier frquency, phase anagle
2, M
i M 
π  α  
=
 is the alphabate size,
cos
ii
 E 
α α  
=
 inphasse basis ,
2b(t) =cos(
ω
t),T
ii
c = sin
α
 E 
, andquadrature basis,
2d(t) = -cos(
ω
t).T
CE is often achievedby multiplexing known symbols, so called, pilot symbols intodata sequences [1]. These modulated symbols and pilotsperform N-point discrete Fourier transform (DFT) to producea frequency domain representation: 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010162http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
-j2mtN-1Niit=0
1s(t) = m(t) e, (2)N
π  
 where j is the imaginary unit. It then maps each of the N-pointDFT outputs to one of the orthogonal sub-carriers mapping thatcan be transmitted. There are two principal sub-carrier mappingmodes: localized mode, and distribution mode. In distributedsub-carrier mode, the outputs are allocated equally spaced sub-carrier, with zeros occupying the unused sub-carrier inbetween. While in localized sub-carrier mode, the outputs areconfined to a continuous spectrum of sub-carrier. Interleavedsub-carrier mapping mode of FDMA (IFDMA) is anotherspecial sub-carrier mapping mode [13], [14]. The differencebetween DFDMA and IFDMA is that the outputs of IFDMAare allocated over the entire bandwidth, whereas the DFDMAsoutputs are allocated every several subcarriers [15], [16].Finally, the inverse DFT (IDFT) module output is followedby a cyclic prefix (CP) insertion that completes the digital stageof the signal flow. The CP is used to eliminate ISI and preservethe orthogonality of the tones. Assume that the channel lengthof CP is larger than the channel delay spread [17].B.
 
Channel modelChannel model is a mathematical representation of thetransfer characteristics of the physical medium. These modelsare formulated by observing the characteristics of the receivedsignal. According to the documents from 3GPP, a radio wavepropagation can be described by multipaths which arise fromreflection and scattering [17]. The received signal at the mobileterminal is a superposition of all paths. If there are L distinctpaths from transmitter to the receiver, the impulse response of the multipath fading channel can be represented as [17]:
L jj j = 1
ω
(m,
τ
) =
ω
(m)
δ
[m -
τ
(m)], (3)
 where
 j
ω
(m)
and
 j
τ
(m)
are attenuations and delays for eachpath at time instant m, and
δ
(.)
is the Dirac delta function. Thefading process for the mobile radio channel is given by
 jd
ω
(v) =
ω
1- (v/f) , (4)
 where Doppler frquency
d
f= s
λ 
,
s is the speed of the mobile,and
λ 
is the wavelength of the transmitted carrier. In order todo simulations as close to the reality as possible, it is essentialto have a good channel model. This model is used to describethe fast variations of the received signal strength due tochanges in phases when a mobile terminal moves. In case of wideband modeling, each path of the impulse response can bemodeled as Rayleigh distributed with uniform phase except lineof sight (LOS) component cases [17].C.
 
Received signal modelThe transmitted symbols propagating through the radiochannel can be modeled as a circular convolution between theCIR and the transmitted data block i.e.,
[s(m)*(m,)]
ω τ  
.Since, the channel coefficient is usually unknown to thereceiver, it needs to be efficiently estimated. The impulseresponse of multipath fading channel can be represented by atap-delayed line filter with time varying coefficients andsymbol-rate spaced coefficients.Fig. 3. L-tapped delay line filter of a fading channel.At the receiver, the opposite set of the operation isperformed. After synchronization, CP samples are discardedand the remaining samples are processed by the DFT toretrieve the complex constellation symbols transmitted overthe orthogonal sub-channels. The received signals are de-mapped and equalizer is used to compensate for the radiochannel frequency selectivity. After IDFT operation, thesereceived signals are demodulated and soft or hard values of the corresponding bits are passed to the decoder. The decoderanalyzes the structure of received bit pattern and tries toreconstruct the original signal.IV. RLS ADAPTIVE CE METHODAn adaptive CE technique is a process that changes itsparameters as it gain more information of its possiblychanging environment. Among many iterative techniques thatexist in the open literature, the well-liked classes of approaches which are achieve from the minimization of themean square error (MSE) between the output of the adaptivefilter and desired signal to perform CE as shown in Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Scheme for adaptive CE.
The signal
s
(m) is transmitted via a time-varying channel
w
(m), and corrupted by an additive noise estimated by usingany kind of CE method. The main aim of most channelestimation algorithms is to minimize the MSE i.e., betweenthe received signal and its estimate, while utilizing as little
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010163http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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