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Adaptive Sub-block ARQ techniques for wireless networks

Adaptive Sub-block ARQ techniques for wireless networks

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract— Wireless channels are highly affected by unpredictable factors such as co channel interference, adjacent channel interference, propagation path loss, and shadowing and multipath fading. An adaptive ARQ scheme, we mean an ARQ scheme with two or more different transmission modes meant for different channel conditions, which uses some channel sensing mechanism to decide which transmission mode is used. In this paper, we propose an adaptive transmission of sub-blocks scheme, for wireless networks. As the channel becomes increasingly noisy, the data block is divided into smaller subblocks for transmission. Each sub-block is encoded for error control by a CRC code. The received block is checked for errors sub-block by sub-block. The propose sub-block retransmission scheme provides improved throughput over conventional ARQ schemes by retransmitting only the same number of sub-blocks in the occurrence of errors.

Index Terms—Retransmission protocol; Hybrid ARQ,CRC
Abstract— Wireless channels are highly affected by unpredictable factors such as co channel interference, adjacent channel interference, propagation path loss, and shadowing and multipath fading. An adaptive ARQ scheme, we mean an ARQ scheme with two or more different transmission modes meant for different channel conditions, which uses some channel sensing mechanism to decide which transmission mode is used. In this paper, we propose an adaptive transmission of sub-blocks scheme, for wireless networks. As the channel becomes increasingly noisy, the data block is divided into smaller subblocks for transmission. Each sub-block is encoded for error control by a CRC code. The received block is checked for errors sub-block by sub-block. The propose sub-block retransmission scheme provides improved throughput over conventional ARQ schemes by retransmitting only the same number of sub-blocks in the occurrence of errors.

Index Terms—Retransmission protocol; Hybrid ARQ,CRC

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Published by: ijcsis on Oct 10, 2010
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 Abstract 
 — 
Wireless channels are highly affected by unpredictable factors such as co channelinterference, adjacent channel interference, propagation path loss, and shadowing and multi path fading. An adaptive ARQ scheme, we meanan ARQ scheme with two or more differenttransmission modes meant for different channelconditions, which uses some channel sensingmechanism to decide which transmission mode isused. In this paper, we propose an adaptivetransmission of sub-blocks scheme, for wirelessnetworks.
 
As the channel becomes increasinglynoisy, the data block is divided into smaller sub- blocks for transmission. Each sub-block isencoded for error control by a CRC code. Thereceived block is checked for errors sub-block bysub-block. The propose sub-block retransmissionscheme provides improved throughput over conventional ARQ schemes by retransmittingonly the same number of sub-blocks in theoccurrence of errors. .
.
 Index Terms
 — 
Retransmission protocol; HybridARQ,CRC
1. INTRODUCTION:
In a mobile radio channel, burst errors frequentlyoccur because of Rayleigh fading and shadowing.In particular, for a large cell-size system with theradius of more than several km, shadowing often becomes the predominant source of burst errors.(Shown in Fig-1)Therefore, in order to provide reliable packet datatransmission in such a channel, an efficientautomatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol must beemployed, since data service can tolerate someA.N.Kemkar 
1
,S.R.T.M.U,Nanded.+91-9819150392,ankemkar@gmail.com  Dr.T.R.Sontakke
2
Ex.Director – S.G.G.S.I.T.E.- NandedPrincipal,Sidhant college of EngineeringPune.+91-9822392766,trsontakke@gmail.comdelays but is sensitive to loss and errors. Manyresearchers have devoted much effort to analyzethe throughput for various ARQ protocols inRayleigh fading channels. In the packet datatransmission, short packets are less likely toencounter fades than long packets, but on theother hand, they are more burdened by overheads.In other words, the packet length to maximize theinstantaneous throughput is closely related to thedynamic channel condition due to fading,shadowing, and propagation path loss. Therefore,if we choose the optimum packet lengthadaptively by estimating the channel condition,we can continuously achieve the maximumattainable throughput.
Paper is organized as follows. We start by,describes in detail about related work in section 2.A Communication system model and proposedmethod of adaptation in section 3. In section 4we have presented system analysis 5. Simulationparameters and results . Followed by conclusionin section 6.
2. RELATED WORK:
A change of transmission mode can mean, for example, a change of the packet size in the SR scheme [1] or a change of the number otransmitted copies of a packet in the GBN scheme[2] or a change of the code rate in an HARQ-Ischeme [3]. In these schemes, the channel sensingis usually done by observing theacknowledgements sent by the receiver to thetransmitter. This can mean either estimation of error rates, as in [4], or detection of channel statechanges, as in [5] and [6],which does not requireas long an observation interval (OBI) as reliableerror rate estimation.In [2], an adaptive SR scheme was proposed,where the packet size used in the currenttransmission was selected from a finite set of values based on a long-term BER estimate. Thisestimate was obtained by counting the incorrectlyreceived packets over a time interval and
Adaptive Sub-block ARQ techniques for wireless networks.
A.N.Kemkar, Member, ISTE and Dr. T.R.Sontakke Member,ISTE1
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010174http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
assuming that there can be at most one bit error inan erroneous packet. Another adaptive SR scheme with variable packet size was proposed in[5], where the
a posteriori
distribution of theBER was computed based on the number of retransmissions during the OBI, and the packetsize was selected so that the expected efficiencyof the protocol was maximized. In [2], Yao proposed an adaptive GBN scheme where thetransmitted number the transmitted number of copies of a packet was variable. Numerous adaptive HARQ schemes have beensuggested in the literature. Typically, the coderate is varied according to the estimated channelconditions. In [6] and [7], adaptive HARQ-Ischemes were studied with convolutional codesused for error correction. Finite-state Markovmodels were assumed for the channel. Switching between transmission modes depended on thenumber of erroneous blocks occurring during anOBI. A similar adaptive HARQ-I scheme witheither block or convolutional codes were proposed in [3]. In [4], sequential statistical testswere applied on the acknowledgements to detectchannel state changes. An adaptive HARQ-IIscheme with variable packet size was proposedfor wireless ATM networks in [8]. This schemeused rate compatible convolutional (RCC) codesfor error correction. In [9], three differentadaptive HARQ schemes are proposed usingReed-Solomon codes for error correction.Another adaptive HARQ scheme using Reed-Solomon codes with variable rate for errocorrection was proposed in [10]. In this schemeshort-term symbol error rate was estimated bycomputing the bitwise modulo-2 sum of twoerroneous copies of a packet. This method wasoriginally proposed in [11].
3. A COMMUNICATION SYSTEM MODELAND PROPOSED METHOD OFADAPTATION:3.1
 
A communication system model:
Fig. 1 shows the communication system model.In the non cellular or large cell-size system, aradio base station continuously transmits data packets to a single mobile terminal with no packet collision after the link connection isestablished. Table I summarizes the digitalmobile communication system characteristics,where we choose a binary frequency shift keyingnon coherent detection (non coherent FSK)scheme in terms of easy implementation, becauseit requires no complicated carrier recovery circuit.
Fig.1.
Communication System model.
Table 1
–Communication system parameters
ParametersDescriptionChannel typeContention Free, half duplexModulation/DemodulationBinary FSK,Non coherentdetection.Packet structureInformation packet length256,128,64,32,16 bits
.
3.2. Adaptation Policy
According to the variations of SNR, the receiver channel may be consider to be in one of the statesat each instant ‘
’. We assume that the sender knows the state at the transmission time foreceiver. Let’s define the
transmission status
attime
as the set of all channel state. Beforetransmitting, the adaptive algorithm in the sender must estimate the efficiency and packet loss rateof the ARQ/FEC protocol using all the availablecoding schemes as well as the ARQ protocol as afunction of the transmission status. It then tries tofind the protocol satisfying the desired packet lossrate. The time is divided into transmission rounds.Each transmission round corresponds to thetransmission ‘k’
 
 packets in case of ARQ. Atransmission round ends when the sender isinformed about the reception state of the receiver.The adaptive algorithm is repeated at the end of Buffer Transmitter ElectronicsReceiver ElectronicsBuffer Adaptive Logic2
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010175http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
each transmission round. Basically, the algorithmgoes through the following steps:1. At the beginning of the algorithm, the sender determines the desired packet loss rate (SNR) of the session. It also determines the transmissionstatus.2. The sender estimates the packet loss rate of theARQ protocol as well as the ARQ/FEC protocolusing all the available coding schemes, based onthe transmission status. It then adjusts its parameters and starts the transmission of the blocks.3. At the end of a transmission round, the sender again determines the transmission status. It thenrepeats the step.
4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THEPROPOSED SCHEME:
The performance analysis of the scheme ismeasured in terms of throughput of the proposedscheme. Further we show the comparison of throughput with sub block and without sub block transmission schemes with Adaptive scheme.Expression of throughput for ARQ for presentscheme:
[ ]
 K  E
η 
=
(1)Where
 K 
=information bits in a block.
[ ]
.
 E 
=Expectation of number of transmitted bits in agiven block.
1
ii
TMn
=
=+
(2)Where
=number of sub blocks,
n
=number of  bits in a sub block,
i
=number of transmitted bitsfor 
th
i
transmission.
[ ] [ ]
1
ii
 ETMn
=
=+
(3)Where
[ ]
 E
=Average number of transmitted bits.Out of 
sub blocks if 
 L
sub blocks aretransmitted at the
th
i
retransmission, then randomvariable,
i
takes the value
 Ln
,if 
 L
out of 
 sub-blocks are retransmitted at the
th
i
 retransmission. Our algorithm compute the valueof (3) to get the result from equation (1).In our analysis we have consider the variable packet sizeas a retransmission units with fixed rate of datatransmission. Hence we can send the packet of specific size based on the estimated signal tonoise ratio (SNR).As shown in the Fig.1 thesystem configuration of ARQ techniquescombines with adaptive packet size modulation.With an exact bit error rate equation for FSK atcertain signal to noise ratio ‘
γ  
’, we can decidethe value of packet size satisfying the requiredBER (bit error rate) Assuming that we have ‘
’different block sizes
{ }
2 3 41
......
 LLLLL
.Let
{ }
;0,......
i
i A
with
i
 A
as the thresholdvalue of signal to noise ratio, being between the
th
i
level and
1
i
+
level.
0
 A
is the lowest possible signal to noise ratio and
 A
is the highest possible signal to noise ratio. 
5. SIMULATION RESULTS
:We evaluate the performance of the proposedscheme implemented with Matlab. We run thesimulation for three schemes i.e. with sub block transmission and without sub block transmissionand adaptive. The simulation parameters areshown in the table 2.
Table 2
- Simulation ParametersParametersNotationValuesSignal to Noise Ratio
γ  
VariedThreshold values of SNR snr8,7,6,5Max. number of Retransmissions--------3 Number of sub blocksretransmitted
 L
VariedCyclic RedundancyCheck CRCVariedBit error rateBERVariedPacket error ratePERVariedThroughput efficiency
η 
VariedData RateR9.6kbpsSimulation runs for 5000 total blocks. Resultis the average of independent experiments whereeach experiment uses different randomlygenerated uniform parameters. We use meanvalues which are obtained independent3
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010176http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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