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An Efficient and Minimum Cost Topology Construction for Rural Wireless Mesh Networks

An Efficient and Minimum Cost Topology Construction for Rural Wireless Mesh Networks

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract - Many research efforts as well as deployments have chosen IEEE802.11 as a low-cost, long-distance access technology to bridge the digital divide. IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi equipment based wireless mesh networks have recently been proposed as an inexpensive approach to connect far-flung rural areas. To establish such network high-gain directional antennas are used to achieve long-distance wireless point-to-point links. Some nodes in the network are called gateway nodes and are directly connected to the wired internet, and the remaining nodes connect to the gateway(s) using one or more hops. In this paper the cost of constructing the antenna towers required is investigated. The problem is NP hard is shown and that abetter than O(log n) approximation cannot be expected, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. To minimize the construction cost a new algorithm is proposed called constant time approximation algorithm. The results of proposed approximation algorithm are compared with both the optimal solution, and a naive heuristic.
Abstract - Many research efforts as well as deployments have chosen IEEE802.11 as a low-cost, long-distance access technology to bridge the digital divide. IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fi equipment based wireless mesh networks have recently been proposed as an inexpensive approach to connect far-flung rural areas. To establish such network high-gain directional antennas are used to achieve long-distance wireless point-to-point links. Some nodes in the network are called gateway nodes and are directly connected to the wired internet, and the remaining nodes connect to the gateway(s) using one or more hops. In this paper the cost of constructing the antenna towers required is investigated. The problem is NP hard is shown and that abetter than O(log n) approximation cannot be expected, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. To minimize the construction cost a new algorithm is proposed called constant time approximation algorithm. The results of proposed approximation algorithm are compared with both the optimal solution, and a naive heuristic.

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An Efficient and Minimum Cost Topology Construction for Rural Wireless MeshNetworksProf. V. Anuratha & Dr. P. Sivaprakasam
AbstractMany research efforts as well asdeployments have chosen IEEE802.11 as alow-cost, long-distance access technology to bridge the digital divide. IEEE 802.11 Wi-Fiequipment based wireless mesh networkshave recently been proposed as aninexpensive approach to connect far-flungrural areas. To establish such network high-gain directional antennas are used to achievelong-distance wireless point-to-point links.Some nodes in the network are calledgateway nodes and are directly connected tothe wired internet, and the remaining nodesconnect to the gateway(s) using one or morehops.In this paper the cost of constructing theantenna towers required is investigated. The problem is NP hard is shown and that a better than
O(log n)
approximation cannot be expected, where n is the number of vertices in the graph. To minimize theconstruction cost a new algorithm is proposed called constant time approximationalgorithm.The results of proposed approximationalgorithm are compared with both theoptimal solution, and a naive heuristic.INTRODUCTIONThere has been a huge proliferation of Internet and other communication basedservices in the last two decades. However,this spread is confined to developedcountries, and metropolitan pockets of developing countries. This is reallyunfortunate for developing countries likeIndia, where around 74% of the populationis rural and are on the wrong side of thedigital divide.Bridging this divide necessitates, providinginternet connectivity to each and everyvillage. Providing the same by expandingthe current telephone network to rural areasis infeasible because of the huge initialinfrastructure costs. Also, deployment of cellular wireless would not be sustainable because of its business model, whichdemands more high-paying consumer density.Emerging technologies like 802.16WMAN[12],[13], have not yet reached thescale of competitive mass production, hencethe equipments are expensive. In this regard,the 802.11 Wi-Fi has shown tremendousgrowth and acceptance as a last hop accesssolution, because of their low price.Although 802.11 was primarily designed for indoor operation, but [3] has established the possibility of using 802.11 in long-distancenetworking.The diverse requirements are in provisionsof 1) Communication pattern which dealswith the mode of communication one-to-one, one to- many, many-to-one, and many-to-many, 2) Delay (real-time, non-real-time,and delay-tolerant), 3) Service availability(centralized, distributed, and location-aware)that deals with the awareness of theavailability of different services, such asInternet access, real-time communications,content distribution, interactive gaming,medical applications, and vehicular safetyapplications. 4) Security and 5) Reliability.An essential requirement to establish long-distance links is that line-of-sight ismaintained between the radio antennas at theend-points.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010202http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
To ensure line-of-sight across such longdistances would require the antennas to bemounted on tall towers. The required heightof the towers depends both on the length of the link, and the height of the obstructionsalong the link.The cost of the tower depends on itsheight and the type of material used. For relatively short heights (10- 20 meters)antenna masts are sufficient. For greater heights, sturdier and much more expensiveantenna towers are required. In this paper,several important contributions are madetowards developing efficient algorithms [14]to solve this problem. First, the requirementsto establish a point-to-point 802.11 link  between two nodes of a given network graphis described. Then the formal definition of the Topology Construction problem (denote by TC) is given. It’s proved that the problemto be NP hard by a reduction from the set-cover problem.The approximation algorithmis presented for this NP hard problem andthe establishment cost of the tower in ruralareas using constant time approximationalgorithm is presented. The rest of this paper is organized as the following. Section IIgives the Related Works of this technique is presented. In Section III, the Methodologyof proposed approach is given. Section IVhas the Experiment Results and this paper isconcluded in Section V.RELATED WORKS802.11-based long-distance networks have been proposed as a cost-effective option to provide Internet connectivity to rural areasin developing regions, to enable Informationand Communication Technology (ICT)services [5].Rural areas (especially in developingregions) have populations with very low paying capacities. Hence, a major factor innetwork deployment is the cost of theinfrastructure and the network equipment. Inthis context, efficient algorithms areinvestigated for the minimum cost topologyconstruction problem in rural wireless meshnetworks. R. Ramanathan
et.al,
[4] discussedon the most critical design issues inmultihop wireless networks. Topologycontrol has been investigated extensively inthe literature. Nevertheless, it is noted thatmost existing studies do not consider therequirements on upper layer applications or services. In this article the author address thetopology control issues on service-orientedwireless mesh networks. In particular, theauthor provides a comprehensive survey of existing works on topology control from aservice-oriented perspective. A generalframework for topology control in service-oriented WMNs is proposed. Todemonstrate the effectiveness of theframework, a case study is conducted inwhich the main objective is to maximize theoverall throughput in a network with randomunicast traffic. The performance of thistopology control scheme is evaluated bynumerical results. In addition, it is illustratedthat the generated topology can supportadvanced technologies, including network coding and physical-layer network coding,which can significantly improve thethroughput capacity of a network. The costof laying wire to rural areas is prohibitivelyexpensive.Also, traditional wireless technologies suchas cellular data networks (e.g., EV-DO) andupcoming technologies like IEEE 802.16WiMAX have prohibitively expensiveequipment costs. As a result, there has beenconsiderable recent interest [6], [7], [8] inthe design of rural mesh networks usingIEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi) equipment. The cost of an 802.11 radio (»$50/PCMCIA card) isorders of magnitude less than that of cellular/WiMAX base stations. Thus, thisapproach is an attractive option for buildinglow cost networks. D. S. Lun
et.al,
[9] presented a distributed random linear network coding approach for transmissionand compression of information in generalmultisource multicast networks. Network nodes independently and randomlyselect linear mappings from inputs ontooutput links over some field. The author shows that this achieves capacity with
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010203http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 probability exponentially approaching 1with the code length. Random linear codingis demonstrated which performscompression when necessary in a network,generalizing error exponents for linear Slepian-Wolf coding in a natural way.Benefits of this approach are decentralizedoperation and robustness to network changesor link failures. The author shows that thisapproach can take advantage of redundantnetwork capacity for improved success probability and robustness. Some potentialadvantages of random linear network codingare illustrated over routing in two examplesof practical scenarios: distributed network operation and networks with dynamicallyvarying connections. The derivation resultalso yields a new bound on required fieldsize for centralized network coding ongeneral multicast networks.METHODOLOGYIn this paper a Novel TopologyControl Scheme is used to identify a set of semi-permanent highways, such that the bestthroughput capacity of the network can beobtained. Particularly, the wireless highwaysare predicted to be rather similar to thehighway system in public transportationsystem, which can efficiently provideconnectivity in real application.
 A.
 
Computing tower heights at the end- points of a link 
Consider two nodes, u and v that areseparated by a distance luv. The edge (u; v)is considered to be covered if an 802.11 based point-to-point communication link can be established between u and v. Assume thatthe transmit powers [15] and the gains of theantennas at both ends are sufficient to over come the free-space path loss between thetwo points. The first basic requirement tocover the edge between u and v is that thereis a clear visual line-of-sight between theantennas at the end-points (as shown in Fig.4a). In other words, the line joining theantennas mounted on the towers should clear any obstructions along the path. Secondly, itis also required that RF line-of-sight ismaintained between the two points. This isdetermined by an elliptical area between uand v termed the first Fresnel zone. Toestablish RF line-of-sight, a significant areaof the Fresnel zone (> 60% of the radius of the Fresnel zone at the location of theobstruction [1]) should also clear allobstructions between u and v. However, thiscan be simply modeled by extending theheight of the obstruction to include theradius of the Fresnel zone that has to be inthe clear.Figure1: Computing the height of towersat the end-points of a link In reality, there can be multipleobstructions between u and v. As in Figure4b, consider multiple obstructions,
O1, O2,…,Ok 
between u and v. Now, let h(u) andh(v) represent the tower heights at the nodesof u and v. Covering edge (u,v) requires avisual and RF line-of-sight connection between the towers at its two terminalnodes. This would imply that the straightline
 fuv
joining the top of the two towers (of heights h(u) at u and h(v) at v) should clear every obstruction in (u,v). Hence, it is notedthat given a particular pair of tower heightsat u and v, deciding whether these heightscovers edge (u,v) can be done in time linear in the number of obstructions on that edge.2
 B.
 
Modeling tower costs
An important component in this problem isthe nature of the cost function that mapstower heights to the cost of building thetower.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010204http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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