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A.R.Q. techniques using Sub-block retransmission for wireless networks

A.R.Q. techniques using Sub-block retransmission for wireless networks

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Published by ijcsis
Abstract—In this paper we mainly focus our investigation on the throughput performance in conjugation with sub-block transmission scheme. The throughput of a wireless data communications system depends on a number of variables, one of it is length of the message blocks. Over a noisy communication medium like
wireless medium used for mobile ad-hoc network, our propose scheme performs effectively. In propose scheme random length of the message is divided in to fixed length blocks and applying ARQ techniques if the error occurs. A threshold model is used for fading channel, estimation and CRC detection codes are used. Comparison of transmission efficiency of proposed scheme with varying channel condition is shown.

Index Terms— FEC, Hybrid ARQ, BER.
Abstract—In this paper we mainly focus our investigation on the throughput performance in conjugation with sub-block transmission scheme. The throughput of a wireless data communications system depends on a number of variables, one of it is length of the message blocks. Over a noisy communication medium like
wireless medium used for mobile ad-hoc network, our propose scheme performs effectively. In propose scheme random length of the message is divided in to fixed length blocks and applying ARQ techniques if the error occurs. A threshold model is used for fading channel, estimation and CRC detection codes are used. Comparison of transmission efficiency of proposed scheme with varying channel condition is shown.

Index Terms— FEC, Hybrid ARQ, BER.

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A.R.Q. techniques using Sub-block retransmission for wireless networksA.N.Kemkar, Member, ISTE and Dr. T.R.Sontakke Member,ISTE
 Abstract 
 —In this paper we mainly focus ouinvestigation on the throughput performance inconjugation with sub-block transmission scheme.The throughput of a wireless datacommunications system depends on a number of variables, one of it is length of the message blocks. Over a noisy communication medium likewireless medium used for mobile ad-hoc network,our propose scheme performs effectively. In propose scheme random length of the message isdivided in to fixed length blocks and applyingARQ techniques if the error occurs. A thresholdmodel is used for fading channel, estimation andCRC detection codes are used. Comparison of transmission efficiency of proposed scheme withvarying channel condition is shown. ..
 Index Terms
 — FEC, Hybrid ARQ, BER.
1. INTRODUCTION
:Wireless channels are highly affected byunpredictable factors such as co-channelinterference, adjacent channel interference, propagation path loss, shadowing and multi pathfading. The unreliability of media degrades thetransmission quality seriously. Automatic RepeatReQuest (ARQ) and Forward Error Correction(FEC) schemes are frequently used in wirelessenvironments to reduce the high bit error rate of the channel.As we have seen, the throughput efficiencies of all the basic ARQ schemes are functions of the packet size n. [1],[2],[3],[4],[5]. Our main resultis a mathematical technique for determining the block size as a function of the other variables likeBER, signal-to-noise ratio.--------------------------------------------------------
 A.N.Kemkar 
1
,S.R.T.M.U,Nanded.+91-9819150392,ankemkar@gmail.com Dr.T.R.Sontakke
2
Ex.Director – S.G.G.S.I.T.E.- NandedPrincipal,Sidhant college of EngineeringPune.+91-9822392766,trsontakke@gmail.com
In an attempt to improve throughput performance, we have included an analysis usingforward error correcting (FEC) block codes (usedin Hybrid ARQ). The optimum amount of FECcoding was found to be dependent upon the Block length. As the Block length increases, the number of correctable errors to optimize the throughputalso increases, mathematical expression is shownin 2.2.The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2.Summary on the Related work and basic concept.In section 3.scheme description and systemmodel. We consider the performance analysis of the proposed scheme for simulation study insection 4. followed by conclusion in Section 5
2.RELATED WORK :
2.1: Related Work- The efficiency of HARQscheme is compared with GBN schemes usingdifferent lengths of IP Blocks. Further show thatusage of smaller Blocks and hybrid schemes leadsto an improved throughput. Differences between pure and hybrid GBN schemes are also discussed.[1]When the channel is quiet the sub-blocretransmission scheme behaves like aconventional ARQ or hybrid ARQ scheme. Asthe channel becomes increasingly noisy, the data block is divided into smaller sub-blocks fotransmission. Each sub-block is encoded for error control by an appropriate shortened code of which the code length is adapted to thecorresponding channel BER.[2] Further optimum block size in accordance with the channelconditions [4] A single code HARQ scheme was proposed in which transmitter is operating in anyone mode with the degree of errors encounter.The operating state is selected based on thechannel BER. Data bits are divided in blocks andare encoded with shortened codes. During theretransmission new coded blocks are combinedand at the receiver end proper decodingtechniques are used to separate retransmitted blocks from the new blocks.
2.1. BASIC CONCEPT -
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010234http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
Analytical expression how Throughput performance of the system varies with the size of the block length and FEC. :Consider thefollowing two cases to verify the Throughput performance of the system.Case 1. Blocks are transmitted without FEC.Case 2. Blocks are transmitted with FEC.Our analysis includes the following simplifyingassumptions:1. The CRC decoder detects allerrors in the output of the FEC decoder.2.Transmission of acknowledgments from thereceiver to the transmitter is error free andinstantaneous.System throughput
( )
is the number of payload bits per second received correctly:
=()
 K TRf  L
γ  
(1)where
 KR L
   
b/s is the payload transmission rateWhere
() =
 f 
γ  
Block success rate defined as probability of receiving block correctly.Probability is a function of signal to noise ratio.
=
 E b N o
γ  
(2)In which
 P  E b R
=
 joules in received energy per bit.where
 R
= Transmission rate. Probability is afunction of signal to noise ratio.
 P  E b R Noo
γ  
= =
(3)Each Block, of length
 L
bits, is a combinationof a payload
( )
 K 
and overhead
( )
-
 L
. Becausethe Block success rate,
()
 f 
γ  
is a decreasingfunction of,
 L
there is an optimum Block length,.
 L
. When
 L
 L
p
excessive overhead in each Block limitsthe throughput. When
>
 L L
Block errors limitsthe throughput.For case 1. When there is no forward errocorrection coding. In this case
( )
( )
()1
 L f  P e
γ γ  
=
(4)where
() =
 f  
γ  
 block success rate defined as probability of receiving block correctly.
( )
e
 P 
γ  
is block error rate.Therefore, in a system without FEC, thethroughput as a function of 
 L
,from (1)
( )
( )
1
-=
L
 P 
 LTRe L
γ  
(5)Case 2.: Now instead of transmitting those
 L
bitswith no error correction capability, we will nowadd
 B
error correcting bits and transmit a total of  bits
+
 LB
.Using a block code forward errocorrection scheme, the minimum number of 
 B
 bits required to correct
errors is given by [5]
+log2=0
 LB Bnn
    
(6) Now that we can correct
errors, our blocsuccess rate,
()
 f 
γ  
should be larger than its previous value with no error correction. Recallthat
()
 f 
γ  
with
= 0 is given by:
( )
( )
()1
 L f  P e
γ γ  
=
where
( )
e
 P 
γ  
is the probabilityof a bit error as a function of the SNR. Now, witherror correction capability, the Block success ratefor some arbitrary value of t is [7]
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
++-1t=0
 LB LBnn f  Peenn
γ γ γ  
  =   
(7)Our new equation for the throughput as a functionof the signal to noise ratio is:
( ) ( )
-+
 P  L N o f  LB
γ γ  γ  
    =     
(8)From (5) and (8) it is clear that throughput of thesystem is a function of message block length.Further (5) and (8) are used for pure and hybridARQ techniques.
3. SCHEME DISCRIPTION AND SYSTEMMODEL :
This paper presents a sub-block retransmissionscheme for ARQ . The data block is divided intosmaller sub-blocks for transmission. Each sub- block is encoded by an appropriate error detectioncodes. The encoded block is then transmitted. Thereceived block is checked for errors sub-block bysub-block. The proposed scheme providesimproved throughput by retransmitting only thesub-blocks in the occurrence of errors.
3.1 SYSTEM MODEL :
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010235http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
We consider an ad-hoc network with V
 
nodesand assume that each node is equipped with onlyone antenna. A Point to Point protocol is used atthe medium access control layer. A Selectiverepeat request ARQ mechanism is used.Particularly, the source node transmits a data packet with a
-bit CRC attached. Thedestination node detects CRC and then sends anacknowledgement that is either positive (ACK) or negative (NACK) back to the source node. If the packet is correctly detected by the destinationnode (with ACK feedback), the source nodecontinues to transmit a new data packet and theabove process is repeated. Otherwise,retransmission will start. A threshold model for channel characterization is used for fadingchannel.
4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF THEPROPOSE SCHEME:
The performance analysis of the scheme ismeasured in terms of throughput of the proposedscheme. Further we show the comparison of throughput with sub block and without sub block transmission schemes.Expression of throughput for ARQ for presentscheme:
[ ]
 K  E
η 
=
(9)where
 K 
=information bits in a block.
[ ]
.
 E 
=Expectation of number of transmitted bits in agiven block.
1
ii
TMn
=
= +
(10)where
=number of sub blocks,
n
=number of  bits in a sub block,
i
=number of transmitted bitsfor 
th
i
transmission.
[ ] [ ]
1
ii
 ETMn
=
= +
(11)where
[ ]
 E
=Average number of transmitted bits.Out of 
sub blocks if 
 L
sub blocks aretransmitted at the
th
i
retransmission ,then randomvariable,
i
takes the value
 Ln
,if 
 L
out of 
 sub-blocks are retransmitted at the
th
i
 retransmission.
SIMULATION RESULTS: We
evaluate the performance of the proposed schemeimplemented with Matlab. We run the simulationfor two schemes i.e. with sub block transmissionand without sub block transmission. Thesimulation parameters are shown in the table1.Simulation run for 5000 total blocks. Result isthe average of independent experiments whereeach experiment uses different randomlygenerated uniform parameters. We use meanvalues which are obtained independentexperiments as a basic data to get the result.Simulation results are shown Table 2Table 1: System Parameters:
ParametersNotaionValuesSignal to Noise Ratio
γ  
VariedTotal number of blocks-------5000Total sub block 
32Information bits in a block 
 K 
16Packet length
n
5000*32*16Max. number oRetransmissions--------3 Number of sub blocksretransmitted
 L
VariedCyclic Redundancy CheckCRCVariedBit error rateBERVariedPacket error ratePERVariedThroughput efficiency
η 
Varied
Table 2 : Simulation Results: FollowingSimulation results shows the comparison of Throughput efficiency verses varied block sizeverses changing channel condition in terms of PER.Table 2:
Block lengthPacket error rateThroughputWithoutsub block Withsub block Withoutsub block Withsub block Withoutsub block Withsub block Whole block istransmittedwith outsubdivision.Whole block isdividedintosub 4 blocks0.10.10.90.990.30.30.860.960.50.50.660.940.70.70.590.930.90.90.570.9110.50.89
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010236http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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