External commands are those command not memoryresidence command. When computer is start these command are not loaded in thememory. When we use the external command, firstly call them with a specify path(address).
Ex- Format, chkdsk, tree, deltree, fdisk, etc.
When we starting the computer take few seconds to ready for work. Thetime between start and perform the work is called booting time. In booting time thehard disk of computer loaded some system file into RAM. There are two types of booting.1-Warm booting (Ctl+Alt+Del):- Restarting PC without switching off the power iscalled warm booting.
2-Cold booting: -
Sometimes, warm booting does not work. It that case, you have to Switch-off, and then it on to boot again. This is called cold booting.
How to start MS-DOS:-
Start > All program > Accessories > command promptOR Start > Run > “cmd”OR Start > Run > commandFolder or Directory: - Which contains files and directory called directory. We cannot type any message in directory, but we can store them.Files: - Which can contains the written messages called file.Drive:-Logical partition of secondary storage device (Hard disk) called drive.