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Antioxidant Activity of the Mycelium of 21 Wild Mushroom Species

Antioxidant Activity of the Mycelium of 21 Wild Mushroom Species

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Kalyoncu F, Oskay M, Kayalar H. In this study, the antioxidant activity of mycelia from 21 wild mushrooms – Agaricus bresadolanus, Auricularia auriculajudae, Chroogomphus rutilus, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Gymnopus dryophilus, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Inocybe flocculosa var. crocifolia, Inocybe catalaunica, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus sajor-caju, Lycoperdon excipuliforme, Macrolepiota excoriata, Morchella esculenta var. rigida, Morchella intermedia, Omphalotus olearius, Pleurotus djamor, Postia stiptica, Rhizopogon roseolus and Stropharia inuncta – were investigated. Antioxidant properties of ethanol, chloroform and water extracts of these 21 mycelia were studied by two methods: free radical scavenging (DPPH) and the scavenging activity of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS.+). Among the 21 mushroom extracts, Omphalotus olearius displayed the most potent antioxidant activity. The study has shown that these wild macrofungi have potential as natural antioxidants.
Kalyoncu F, Oskay M, Kayalar H. In this study, the antioxidant activity of mycelia from 21 wild mushrooms – Agaricus bresadolanus, Auricularia auriculajudae, Chroogomphus rutilus, Fomes fomentarius, Ganoderma lucidum, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Gymnopus dryophilus, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Inocybe flocculosa var. crocifolia, Inocybe catalaunica, Lentinula edodes, Lentinus sajor-caju, Lycoperdon excipuliforme, Macrolepiota excoriata, Morchella esculenta var. rigida, Morchella intermedia, Omphalotus olearius, Pleurotus djamor, Postia stiptica, Rhizopogon roseolus and Stropharia inuncta – were investigated. Antioxidant properties of ethanol, chloroform and water extracts of these 21 mycelia were studied by two methods: free radical scavenging (DPPH) and the scavenging activity of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS.+). Among the 21 mushroom extracts, Omphalotus olearius displayed the most potent antioxidant activity. The study has shown that these wild macrofungi have potential as natural antioxidants.

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Mycology
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t913878484
Antioxidant activity of the mycelium of 21 wild mushroom species
Fatih Kalyoncu
a
; Mustafa Oskay
a
; Hüsniye Kayalar
ba
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey
b
Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, İzmir, TurkeyFirst published on: 19 August 2010
To cite this Article
Kalyoncu, Fatih , Oskay, Mustafa and Kayalar, Hüsniye(2010) 'Antioxidant activity of the mycelium of 21 wild mushroom species', Mycology, 1: 3, 195 — 199, First published on: 19 August 2010 (iFirst)
To link to this Article: DOI:
10.1080/21501203.2010.511292
URL:
Full terms and conditions of use:http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdfThis article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial orsystematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply ordistribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contentswill be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug dosesshould be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss,actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directlyor indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
 
Mycology
Vol. 1, No. 3, September 2010, 195–199
ISSN 2150-1203 print/ISSN 2150-1211 online© 2010 Mycological Society of ChinaDOI: 10.1080/21501203.2010.511292http://www.informaworld.com
wTMYC
Antioxidant activity of the mycelium of 21 wild mushroom species
Mycology
Fatih Kalyoncu
a
*, Mustafa Oskay
a
and Hüsniye Kayalar 
 b
a
 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey;
b
 Department of Pharmacognosy, Facultyof Pharmacy, Ege University,
 I 
 zmir, Turkey
(
 Received 21 April 2010; final version received 20 July 2010
)In this study, the antioxidant activity of mycelia from 21 wild mushrooms – 
 Agaricus bresadolanus, Auricularia auricula- judae, Chroogomphus rutilus, Fomes fomentarius
,
Ganoderma lucidum, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Gymnopus dryophilus, Infundibulicybe geotropa, Inocybe flocculosa
var.
crocifolia
,
 Inocybe catalaunica
,
 Lentinula edodes, Lentinus sajor-caju, Lycoperdon excipuliforme, Macrolepiota excoriata, Morchella esculenta
var.
rigida
,
Morchella intermedia
,
Omphalotusolearius
,
 Pleurotus djamor, Postia stiptica, Rhizopogon roseolus
and
Stropharia inuncta
– were investigated. Antioxidant properties of ethanol, chloroform and water extracts of these 21 mycelia were studied by two methods: free radical scaveng-ing (DPPH) and the scavenging activity of 2,2’-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS
.+
).Among the 21 mushroom extracts,
Omphalotus olearius
displayed the most potent antioxidant activity. The study hasshown that these wild macrofungi have potential as natural antioxidants.
Keywords:
antioxidant activity; mycelium; Turkey; wild mushroom
Introduction
Oxidation is essential in many
 
living organisms for the production of energy to fuel biological processes. How-ever, uncontrolled production of oxygen-derived free radi-cals results in the onset of many diseases, such as cancer,rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, as well as indegenerative processes associated with aging (Halliwelland Gutteridge 2003). Almost all organisms are well pro-tected against free radical damage by enzymes, such assuperoxide dismutase and catalase, or compounds, such asascorbic acid, tocopherols and glutathione (Niki et al.1994). When the mechanism of antioxidant protection becomes unbalanced by factors such as ageing, deteriora-tion of physiological functions may occur, resulting in dis-eases and accelerated ageing. However, antioxidantsupplements or antioxidant-containing foods may help thehuman body to reduce oxidative damage (Mau et al. 2001;Gülçin et al. 2002).Many species of fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals,sprouts and seeds have been investigated for antioxidantactivity over the past decade (Assimopoulou et al. 2004;Elmastas et al. 2005). Natural antioxidants are beingextensively studied for their capacity to protect organismsand cells from damage brought on by oxidative stress; thelatter being considered a cause of ageing and degenerativediseases (Cazzi et al. 1997). Like plants, mushrooms accu-mulate a variety of secondary metabolites, including phe-nolic compounds, polyketides, terpenes and steroids(Turkoglu et al. 2007). Mushrooms are appreciated, notonly for texture and flavour but also for their chemical andnutritional properties. Wild mushrooms are traditionallyused in many Asian countries in both food and medicine(Sanmee et al. 2003; Isildak et al. 2004). Mushrooms havealso been reported as therapeutic foods that are useful in preventing diseases such as hypertension, hypercholester-olemia and cancer. These functional characteristics aremainly due to their chemical composition (Manzi et al.2001). Wild mushrooms are becoming more and moreimportant in our diet for their nutritional and pharmaco-logical properties (Elmastas et al. 2007). Like the fruiting bodies, mycelia are used as food and food-flavouringmaterials and also in the formulation of nutraceuticals andfunctional foods.Although there are many studies on cultivated andwild mushrooms in the northern hemisphere, there is littleinformation available about antioxidant properties of wildmushrooms collected from different parts of Anatolia. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant activities of ethanol, chloroform and water extracts of mycelium of 21wild mushrooms by free radical scavenging and ABTS
.+
decolorisation methods.
Material and methods
 Mushrooms and growth of mycelia
Mycelia obtained from 21 wild mushroom species (
 Agari-cus bresadolanus
,
 Auricularia auricula-judae
,
Chroogom- phus rutilus
,
 Fomes fomentarius
,
Ganoderma lucidum
,
*Corresponding author. Email:fatihkalyoncu@hotmail.com
 D o w nl o ad ed  B y : [ TÜ B T A K  E K U A L]  A t : 10 :53 23  S e p t e mb e r 2010
 
196
 F. Kalyoncu
et al
.Gloeophyllum trabeum
,
Gymnopus dryophilus
,
 Infundibul-icybe geotropa
,
 Inocybe flocculosa
var.
crocifolia
,
 Inocybecatalaunica
,
 Lentinula edodes
,
 Lentinus sajor-caju
,
 Lyco- perdon excipuliforme
,
Macrolepiota excoriate
,
Morchellaesculenta
var.
rigida
,
Morchella intermedia
,
Omphalotusolearius
,
 Pleurotus djamor 
,
 Postia stiptica
,
 Rhizopogonroseolus
and
Stropharia inuncta
) collected from different parts of Anatolia were grown at 25
°
C in submerged liquidcultures. The families and culture collection numbers of these species are given in Table 1. The liquid Hagem medium(pH 6.5) contained malt extract (4.0 g/l), yeast extract (1.0 g/l),glucose (5.0 g/l), KH
2
PO
4
(0.5 g/l), MgSO
4
·7H
2
0 (0.5 g/l), NH
4
Cl (0.5 g/l), FeCl
3
(1% aqueous solution: 0.5 ml), thi-amine (1 mg/ml aqueous solution), distilled water (1 l)(Kalm
is
and Kalyoncu 2008).Erlenmeyer flasks of Hagem medium were inoculatedwith agar plugs (Potato Dextrose Agar – 6 mm diameter)covered with mycelium (Hatvani 2001). After 30 daysincubation in the dark, the liquid medium was filtered andthe mycelium separated from the liquid.
 DPPH radical scavenging activity
The hydrogen atom or electron donation abilities of themycelial extracts were measured from bleaching of the purple-coloured methanol solution of 1,1-diphenly-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH). This spectrophotometric assay usesthe stable radical DPPH as a reagent (Gezer et al. 2006).First, 1000
μ
l of a 1 mg/ml concentration of the extracts inethanol were added to 4 ml of a 0.004% methanol solutionof DPPH. After a 30-min incubation period at room tem- perature, the absorbance was read against a blank at 517 nm.Inhibition (
 I 
) of free radical by DPPH in percent (
 I 
(%))was calculated as follows:where
 A
 
 blank 
is the absorbance of the control reaction and
 A
sample
is the absorbance of the test compound.
α
-tocopherol(TOC) was used for comparison.
 Scavenging activity of ABTS 
+
radical cation
The scavenging activity of the extracts was estimatedusing the ABTS
.+
decolourisation method (Re et al. 1999;Arumagam et al. 2006). ABTS with potassium per sul- phate generates blue/green ABTS
.+
. The radical formedshows a maximum absorbance at 734 nm. The antioxi-dants cause discoloration by transferring a hydrogen atomto the radical cation. In this experiment, 5 ml of 7 mMABTS and 88
μ
l of 140 mM K 
2
S
2
O
8
were mixed andallowed to complete radical generation for 12–16 h in thedark at room temperature. The stock solution was dilutedwith ethanol and PBS (pH 7.4) to give an absorbance of 0.75 at 734 nm. Then, 1 ml of the extract was added to 1ml of diluted stock solution and the absorbance measuredat 734 nm, 5 min after the initial mixing, using ethanol asthe blank. All determinations were performed in triplicate.The total antioxidant activity (TAA) percentage was cal-culated by the equation given below:
Table 1.Families and culture collection numbers of macrofungus species. No.SpeciesFamiliesMushroom culture collection numbe1
Omphalotus olearius
(DC.) SingerMarasmiaceaeMCC-032
Gloeophyllum trabeum
(Pers.) MurrillGloeophyllaceaeMCC-053
 Inocybe flocculosa
var.
crocifolia
(Berk.) Sacc.InocybaceaeMCC-064
Gymnopus dryophilus
(Bull.) MurrillMarasmiaceaeMCC-095
 Infundibulicybe geotropa
(Bull.) HarmajaTricholomataceaeMCC-106
 Lycoperdon excipuliforme
(Scop.) Pers.AgaricaceaeMCC-127
 Postia stiptica
(Pers.) JülichFomitopsidaceaeMCC-138
Macrolepiota excoriata
(Schaeff.) WasserAgaricaceaeMCC-149
 Pleurotus djamor 
(Rumph. ex Fr.) BoedijnPleurotaceaeMCC-1510
 Inocybe catalaunica
SingerInocybaceaeMCC-1711
 Rhizopogon roseolus
(Corda.) Th. Fr.RhizopogonaceaeMCC-1812
 Fomes fomentarius
(L.) J. Kickx f.PolyporaceaeMCC-1913
Chroogomphus rutilus
(Schaeff.) O.K. Mill.GomphidiaceaeMCC-2114
Morchella esculenta
var.
rigida
(Krombh.) I.R. HallMorchellaceaeMCC-2415
 Agaricus bresadolanus
BohusAgaricaceaeMCC-2816
 Lentinus sajor-caju
(Fr.) Fr.PolyporaceaeMCC-2917
Morchella intermedia
Boud.MorchellaceaeMCC-3018
 Auricularia auricula-judae
(Bull.) Quel.AuriculariaceaeMCC-4719
Ganoderma lucidum
(Curtis) P. Karst.GanodermataceaeMCC-5220
 Lentinula edodes
(Berk.) PeglerMarasmiaceaeMCC-5521
Stropharia inuncta
(Fr.) Quel.StrophariaceaeMCC-59
 I A A A
(%) [( )/ ] 100
blank sample blan
= ×
TAA % ( / ) 100
c s c
= ×
 A A A
 D o w nl o ad ed  B y : [ TÜ B T A K  E K U A L]  A t : 10 :53 23  S e p t e mb e r 2010

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