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Liver Lab

Liver Lab

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Published by: tensai-sama on Oct 11, 2010
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03/07/2013

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The Effects of HydrogenPeroxide andCatalase
October 4, 2010Periods 6 & 7
 
Introduction
In order to obtain energy and building blocks from food, the digestive system must break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. In this process, specific enzymes catalyze hydrolysisreactions in which food polymers are broken up into monomers. Human cells are always making poisonous chemicals. They do not die because they use enzymes to break down these chemicalsinto harmless substances. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of reactions that wouldotherwise happen ore slowly. The enzyme is not altered by the reaction. Liver and other livingtissues contain the enzyme catalase. This enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide, which is aharmful by-product of the process of cellular respiration if it builds up in concentration in thecells. The reaction between hydrogen peroxide and catalase is as follows: 2H
2
O
2
 
2H
2
O + O
2
.This reaction is important to cells because hydrogen peroxide is produced as a byproduct of many normal cellular reactions. If the cells did not break down the hydrogen peroxide, theywould be poisoned and die.The purpose of this lab is the study the catalase found in liver cells, and the effects of adding hydrogen peroxide to it under various conditions. Also, to test various other cells, such asapple, ham and potato cells, for the presence of the enzyme catalase.
Hypothesis
Part A: If the liver is placed in 2 ml of 3% hydrogen peroxide, then the result will be ahigh rate of reaction because catalase reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form hydrogen andoxygen.Part B: If pieces of potato, chicken, and apple are placed into 2 ml of hydrogen peroxideseparately, then only the chicken will have a reaction.Part C: If the liver is placed in 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide at room temperature, then therewill be a high rate of reaction, otherwise the enzyme will become denatured at too high or toolow a temperature.Part D: If the pH is neutral, then the enzyme will react properly with the hydrogen peroxide.
Materials & Method
14 clean test tubes, one of which must be glass. A test tube holder. Scissors or a razor  blade to cut up the meat and other foods. A hot plate to boil and warm the water. One 10-mlgraduated cylinder to measure the hydrogen peroxide and 40 ml of a 3% hydrogen peroxidesolution. A thermometer and a stirring rod. pH paper. Fresh cow liver, chicken, apples and potatoes. A small container to dump the wastes from the experiment. Half a cup of distilled water to cover the liver when boiling. 3 clean glass cylinders to hold the water that will either be heatedor iced. A bag of ice for the ice bath. A stop watch to time the baths.Part AFirst, place 2 ml of the 3% hydrogen peroxide solution into a clean test tube. Using theforceps and scissors, cut a small piece of liver and add it to the test tube. Push the liver slice intothe hydrogen peroxide with the stirring rod and observe the reaction. Place 2 ml of the hydrogen peroxide solution into a clean test tube and again add a small piece of liver and observe thereaction. Then pour off the liquid into a second clean test tube. Add a piece of liver to this used
 
liquid and observe what happens. Then, add another 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide to the liver remaining in the first test tube and observe what happens.Part BPlace 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide into a clean test tube. Then cut a small piece of potatoand add it to the solution and record what happens. In another test tube add 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide and a small piece of chicken. To a third test tube, add a small piece of apple and 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide. For each, observe and record the reaction.Part CPut a piece of cow liver into the bottom of the clean glass test tube and cover it with asmall amount of the distilled water. Fill one of the glass cylinders with water and put it on the hot plate to boil. When it begins boiling, place the test tube into the boiling water bath for 5 minutes.Using the test tube holder, remove the test tube from the boiling water and allow it to air cool.Then pour out the water into the waste container and add 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide to the boiledliver. Observe and record what happens.Then, put equal amounts of liver into 2 clean test tubes and in 2 other test tubes, add 1 mlof hydrogen peroxide to each. Put on of the liver test tubes and one of the hydrogen peroxide testtubes into an ice bath (a cylinder filled with ice water) and the other 2 test tubes of liver andhydrogen peroxide into a warm water bath (a cylinder filled with water and set on the hot platethat is set to low with water temperature at 40°C). Time for 3 minutes, then pour the cold tube of H
2
O
2
(hydrogen peroxide) into the cold liver test tube and the warm tube of H
2
O
2
into the warmliver test tube and observe and record the reactions.Part DPrepare 3 tubes as follows: one tube with a pH of 3, so it is acidic, one tube with pH of 10(basic), and one tube with a pH of 7 (neutral). Use the pH paper to ensure the pH of each testtube. Use distilled water for the tube with pH 7. To each of the three tubes add 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide. Add a small piece of liver, each about the same size, to each test tube. Observe andrecord what happens.

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