In order to obtain energy and building blocks from food, the digestive system must break down proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. In this process, specific enzymes catalyze hydrolysisreactions in which food polymers are broken up into monomers. Human cells are always making poisonous chemicals. They do not die because they use enzymes to break down these chemicalsinto harmless substances. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of reactions that wouldotherwise happen ore slowly. The enzyme is not altered by the reaction. Liver and other livingtissues contain the enzyme catalase. This enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide, which is aharmful by-product of the process of cellular respiration if it builds up in concentration in thecells. The reaction between hydrogen peroxide and catalase is as follows: 2H
O + O
.This reaction is important to cells because hydrogen peroxide is produced as a byproduct of many normal cellular reactions. If the cells did not break down the hydrogen peroxide, theywould be poisoned and die.The purpose of this lab is the study the catalase found in liver cells, and the effects of adding hydrogen peroxide to it under various conditions. Also, to test various other cells, such asapple, ham and potato cells, for the presence of the enzyme catalase.
Part A: If the liver is placed in 2 ml of 3% hydrogen peroxide, then the result will be ahigh rate of reaction because catalase reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form hydrogen andoxygen.Part B: If pieces of potato, chicken, and apple are placed into 2 ml of hydrogen peroxideseparately, then only the chicken will have a reaction.Part C: If the liver is placed in 2 ml of hydrogen peroxide at room temperature, then therewill be a high rate of reaction, otherwise the enzyme will become denatured at too high or toolow a temperature.Part D: If the pH is neutral, then the enzyme will react properly with the hydrogen peroxide.
Materials & Method
14 clean test tubes, one of which must be glass. A test tube holder. Scissors or a razor blade to cut up the meat and other foods. A hot plate to boil and warm the water. One 10-mlgraduated cylinder to measure the hydrogen peroxide and 40 ml of a 3% hydrogen peroxidesolution. A thermometer and a stirring rod. pH paper. Fresh cow liver, chicken, apples and potatoes. A small container to dump the wastes from the experiment. Half a cup of distilled water to cover the liver when boiling. 3 clean glass cylinders to hold the water that will either be heatedor iced. A bag of ice for the ice bath. A stop watch to time the baths.Part AFirst, place 2 ml of the 3% hydrogen peroxide solution into a clean test tube. Using theforceps and scissors, cut a small piece of liver and add it to the test tube. Push the liver slice intothe hydrogen peroxide with the stirring rod and observe the reaction. Place 2 ml of the hydrogen peroxide solution into a clean test tube and again add a small piece of liver and observe thereaction. Then pour off the liquid into a second clean test tube. Add a piece of liver to this used