the top of which means are provided to pass air (or an inert gas) stream to remove vapour.The apparatus also comprise an air pump, a travelling microscope with accurate focusadjustment and mounted for vertical axis movement against a Vernier scale and athermostatically controlled water bath, in which to place the capillary tube, capable of accurate temperature control.The experimental capabilities of this apparatus are direct measurement of masstransfer rates in the absence convective effects, use of a gas laws to calculate concentrationsdifferences in terms of partial pressures,
use of Fick’s Law to measure diffusioncoefficients in the presence of a stationary gas
measurement of the effect of temperature on diffusion coefficients
and gaining familiarity with the use of laboratoryinstruments to achieve accurate measurements of data required for industrial process design.The diffusivity of the vapour of a volatile liquid in air can be conveniently determined by Winklemann’s method in which liquid is contained in a narrow diameter vertical tube,maintained at a constant temperature, and an air stream is passed over the top of the tube toensure the partial pressure of the vapour is transferred from the surface of the liquid to the air stream by molecular diffusion. The molecular diffusivity, D, is a kinetic parameter associatedwith static and dynamic conditions of a process. All the complexity and unwieldiness of many calculations is, indeed, connected with the determination of this quantity.
The objective of this experiment is1.To determine the diffusivity of the vapour of acetone.2.To study the effect of temperature on the diffusivity.
The diffusion of vapour A from a volatile liquid into another gas B can beconveniently studied by confining a small sample of the liquid in a narrow vertical tube andobserving its rate of evaporation into a stream of gas B passed across the top of the tube.