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Diffusion Coefficient Full Report Tiqa

Diffusion Coefficient Full Report Tiqa

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Published by Atiqah Samad

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Published by: Atiqah Samad on Oct 11, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/02/2013

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TABLE OF CONTENTSCONTENTPAGE
Abstract / summary2
Introduction2-3
Aims / objectives3
Theory3-6
Apparatus6
Experimental procedure6-7
Result 8-9
Calculation10-13
Discussion14-15
Conclusion15
Recommendation16
References17
Appendices18-20
1
 
ABSTRACT/SUMMARY
Regarding to the experiment objectives which is to determine the diffusivity of thevapour of acetone and to study the effect of temperature on the diffusivity, this experiment is based on the mass transfer theory. The instrument used is the Gas Dispersion Apparatus thatconsists of an acrylic assembly which is sub-divided into two compartments. Onecompartment is constructed from clear acrylic and is used as a constant temperature water  bath. The other compartment is incorporates an air pump and the necessary electrical controlsfor the equipment. The experiment is run by using two difference temperatures in order tostudy the effect of temperature on the diffusivity of the vapour of acetone. At temperature of 40˚C, the diffusivity of acetone that obtained is 2.054 x 10
-7
m
2
/s. Meanwhile, at temperatureof 50˚C, the diffusivity of acetone that obtained is 8.875 x 10
-7
m
2
/s. As the temperatureincrease, the diffusivity of the vapour of acetone also increases.
INTRODUCTION
Gaseous diffusivity or gas dispersion apparatus which involves diffusion with bulk flow is one of the items of laboratory equipment that have been designed to allowmeasurement of molecular diffusivities and also to make the students become more familiar with the basic notions of mass transfer theory. This apparatus is a bench mounted apparatusfor the determination of diffusion coefficients of a vapour in air, which uses the method of measuring the rate of evaporation of a liquid through a stagnant layer into a flowing air stream, comprising a precision bore capillary tube, which may be filled from a syringe and
2
 
the top of which means are provided to pass air (or an inert gas) stream to remove vapour.The apparatus also comprise an air pump, a travelling microscope with accurate focusadjustment and mounted for vertical axis movement against a Vernier scale and athermostatically controlled water bath, in which to place the capillary tube, capable of accurate temperature control.[1]The experimental capabilities of this apparatus are direct measurement of masstransfer rates in the absence convective effects, use of a gas laws to calculate concentrationsdifferences in terms of partial pressures,
use of Fick’s Law to measure diffusioncoefficients in the presence of a stationary gas
,
measurement of the effect of temperature on diffusion coefficients
and gaining familiarity with the use of laboratoryinstruments to achieve accurate measurements of data required for industrial process design.[1]The diffusivity of the vapour of a volatile liquid in air can be conveniently determined by Winklemann’s method in which liquid is contained in a narrow diameter vertical tube,maintained at a constant temperature, and an air stream is passed over the top of the tube toensure the partial pressure of the vapour is transferred from the surface of the liquid to the air stream by molecular diffusion. The molecular diffusivity, D, is a kinetic parameter associatedwith static and dynamic conditions of a process. All the complexity and unwieldiness of many calculations is, indeed, connected with the determination of this quantity.[2]
OBJECTIVE
The objective of this experiment is1.To determine the diffusivity of the vapour of acetone.2.To study the effect of temperature on the diffusivity.
THEORY
The diffusion of vapour A from a volatile liquid into another gas B can beconveniently studied by confining a small sample of the liquid in a narrow vertical tube andobserving its rate of evaporation into a stream of gas B passed across the top of the tube.
3

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