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Table Of Contents

Introduction to data
1.2 Data basics
1.2.1 Observations, variables, and cars
1.2.2 Data Matrix
1.2.3 Variable types
1.2.4 Variable relationships
1.2.5 Associated and independent variables
1.3 Examining numerical data
1.3.1 Scatterplots for paired data
1.3.2 Dot plots and the mean
1.3.3 Histograms and shape
1.3.4 Variance and standard deviation
Variance and standard deviation
1.3.5 Box plots, quartiles, and the median
1.3.6 Robust statistics
1.4 Considering categorical data
1.4.1 Contingency tables
1.4.2 Bar charts and proportions
1.4.3 Mosaic plots and independence
1.4.4 The only pie chart you will see in this book
1.4.5 Comparing numerical data across groups
1.5 Data collection
1.5.1 Populations and samples
1.5.2 Anecdotal evidence
1.5.3 Sampling from a population
1.5.4 Explanatory and response variables
TIP: Explanatory and response variables
1.5.5 Experiments
1.5.6 Observational studies
1.5.7 Reducing bias in human experiments
1.5.8 Variability within data
1.6 Case study: efficacy of sulphinpyrazone*
1.6.1 Simulating the study*
1.6.2 Checking for independence*
1.7 Problem set
2.1 Defining probability
2.1.1 Probability
2.1.2 Disjoint or mutually exclusive outcomes
2.1.3 Probability distributions
2.1.4 Complement of an event
2.1.5 Independence
2.2 Continuous distributions
2.2.1 From histograms to continuous distributions
2.2.2 Probabilities from continuous distributions
2.3 Conditional probability
2.3.1 Marginal and joint probabilities
Marginal and joint probabilities
2.3.2 Defining conditional probability
2.3.3 Smallpox in Boston, 1721
2.3.4 General multiplication rule
2.3.5 Independence considerations
2.3.6 Tree diagrams
2.4 Sampling from a small population
2.5 Expected value and uncertainty
2.5.1 Expectation
2.5.2 Variability in random variables
2.6.1 Defining probability
2.6.2 Continuous distributions
2.6.3 Conditional probability
2.6.4 Sampling from a small population
2.6.5 Expected value and uncertainty
3.1 Normal distribution
3.1.1 Normal distribution model
3.1.2 Standardizing with Z scores
3.1.3 Normal probability table
3.1.4 Normal probability examples
3.1.5 68-95-99.7 rule
3.2 Evaluating the normal approximation
3.2.1 Normal probability plot
3.2.2 Constructing a normal probability plot*
3.3 Geometric distribution
3.3.1 Bernoulli distribution
3.3.2 Geometric distribution*
3.4 Binomial model*
3.5 Problem set
3.5.1 Normal distribution
3.5.2 Evaluating the Normal distribution
3.5.3 Geometric distribution
3.5.4 Binomial distribution
Foundations for inference
4.1 Variability in estimates
4.1.1 Point estimates
4.1.2 Point estimates are not exact
4.1.3 Standard error of the mean
4.1.4 Summary
4.2 Confidence intervals
4.2.1 Capturing the population parameter
4.2.2 An approximate 95% confidence interval
4.2.3 A sampling distribution for the mean
4.2.4 Changing the confidence level
4.2.5 Interpreting confidence intervals
4.3 Hypothesis testing
4.3.1 Hypothesis testing framework
4.3.2 Testing hypotheses with confidence intervals
4.3.3 Decision errors
4.3.4 Formal testing using p-values
4.3.6 Choosing a significance level
4.4 Examining the Central Limit Theorem
4.5 A framework for inference
4.5.1 A general approach to confidence intervals
4.5.2 Hypothesis testing generalization
4.6 Problem set
4.6.1 Variability in estimates
4.6.2 Confidence intervals
4.6.3 Hypothesis testing
4.6.4 Examining the Central Limit Theorem
4.6.5 A framework for inference
Large sample inference
5.1 Paired data
5.1.1 Paired observations and samples
5.1.2 Inference for paired data
5.2 Difference of two means
5.2.1 Point estimates and standard errors for differences of means
5.2.2 Confidence interval for the difference
5.2.3 Hypothesis test based on a difference in means
5.2.4 Summary for inference of the difference of two means
5.2.5 Examining the standard error formula
5.3 Single population proportion
5.3.1 Identifying when a sample proportion is nearly normal
5.3.2 Confidence intervals for a proportion
5.3.3 Hypothesis testing for a proportion
5.4 Difference of two proportions
5.4.1 Distribution of the difference of two proportions
5.4.2 Intervals and tests for p1−p2
5.4.3 Hypothesis testing when H0 : p1 = p2
5.5 When to retreat
5.6 Problem set
5.6.1 Paired data
5.6.2 Difference of two means
5.6.3 Single population proportion
5.6.4 Difference of two proportions
5.6.5 When to retreat
Small sample inference
6.1 Small sample inference for the mean
6.1.1 The normality condition
6.1.2 Introducing the t distribution
6.1.3 Working with the t distribution
6.1.4 The t distribution as a solution to the standard error problem
6.1.5 One sample confidence intervals with small n
6.1.6 One sample t tests with small n
6.2 The t distribution for the difference of two means
6.2.1 A distribution for the difference of two sample means
6.2.3 Two sample t confidence interval
6.3 Problem set
6.3.1 Small sample inference for the mean
7.1 Line fitting, residuals, and correlation
7.1.1 Beginning with straight lines
7.1.2 Fitting a line by eye
7.1.3 Residuals
7.1.4 Describing linear relationships with correlation
7.2 Fitting a line by least squares regression
7.2.1 An objective measure for finding the best line
7.2.2 Conditions for the least squares line
A.1 Normal Probability Table
A.2 t Distribution Table
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Open Intro Statistics

Open Intro Statistics

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Published by: tihcnas on Oct 11, 2010
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