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Secondary Electron Emission by Bruce Darrow Gaither

Secondary Electron Emission by Bruce Darrow Gaither

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Published by brucedar
An anthology of books and articles on the subject of secondary electron emission. The theme of the book is to disclose a device to generate electricity using special materials which emit more electrons than they are bombarded with by electron beams.
An anthology of books and articles on the subject of secondary electron emission. The theme of the book is to disclose a device to generate electricity using special materials which emit more electrons than they are bombarded with by electron beams.

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: brucedar on Oct 11, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Electron Multiplication through Secondary ElectronEmission
By Bruce Darrow GaitherIn this era of energy shortages we have all daydreamed about owning a device whichwould take the energy that we have and multiply it. Imagine how happy we would be if you could simply plug in a device which would double your electricity. Numerousresearchers, writers and inventors have sought to do just that.But scientists have cautioned that the law of conservation of energy dictates that energy isnever created nor destroyed, only converted from one form to another. None of theseschemes, they say, would ever work. They are just perpetual motion machines.The purpose of this book is to discuss advances in electronics and materials sciencewhich have made things possible which were not contemplated when the laws of Thermodynamics were postulated decades ago.Secondary electron emission is a well-known process. It is that effect which causesadditional electrons to be emitted when a substance is bombarded by a stream of electrons. This secondary emission effect was discovered a century ago, and it has foundapplication in a variety of devices which are in use today.Advances in electronics and the development of new materials have revealed newmethods and substances which make this secondary electron emission even moreeffective. In fact, today the impossible is possible—one electron at a time.If a beam of electrons is aimed at a target electrode coated with a given substance thenelectrons are emitted from that target. The number of electrons emitted from the targetwhich has been bombarded is compared to the number of primary electrons in theoriginal electron beam. The electrons emitted after bombardment by primary electronsare called secondary electrons.The material’s propensity to emit electrons after bombardment is called the “secondaryelectron emission coefficient”. That is expressed as the number of secondary electronsdivided by the number of primary electrons.A secondary electron coefficient of less than 1 means that the substance does not emit asmany electrons as it is bombarded with. A coefficient of greater than 1.0 means that thesubstance emits more secondary electrons than bombarded itWe are interested in this book in those materials which exhibit a high coefficient of secondary electron emission. The goal is to perfect a device which will emit more
electrons than you started out with. Some devices have been invented to minimize oreliminate secondary electron emission, but those are not within the scope of this book.Years of testing and research have resulted in well-known coefficients of secondaryelectron emission for scores of materials. Research first focused upon basic substancessuch as copper, steel, silver, gold and other metals. Then more exotic combinations andalloys were tested, such as oxides and alkalai metal combinations. Some metals and somecombination coatings worked much better than others.In recent years miniaturization and nanotechnology as well as chemical vapor depositionof thin films have come up with even more effective secondary electron multipliers.In fact today’s plasma televisions and LED lights are examples of such substances andprocesses.A reference to various charts is now possible to determine at a glance exactly what thesecondary electron emission coefficient is for these materials.But the devil is still in the details.Two variables are of importance as to the materials. One variable is the angle at whichthe primary electrons impact the target. In general it has been found that a better result isobtained when the primary electrons graze the target material at an angle rather thanhitting straight-on. But the physics of the secondary emission process and the atomic andmolecular structure of the target materials mean that the optimum angle is different fordifferent materials. The second main variable is the voltage of the beam of primaryelectrons. Some substances max out their secondary emission coefficient at very lowvoltages and some materials reach their highest secondary emission only at much highervoltages. This is believed to be due to the depth to which the primary electrons impingesthe material and the amount of tunneling into the substance.Therefore care must be be paid to the research of the variables in the individual researchpapers and patents and there is no magical formula which will work for all materials. Theconfiguration of the device used in the secondary emission process will need to vary tomeet the characteristics of the target material.Once the primary electrons have impacted the target material and secondary electrons arereleased, then the secondary electrons do not form a focused beam. Instead they tend to just sit there in a cloud of electrons. Meanwhile the primary electrons will usually bounceoff the target at an angle equal to the angle with which they make incidence to the target.This means that the kinetic energy of the primary electrons is greater than that of thesecondary electrons after impact. In other words the secondary electrons are indeed alarger number of electrons—but they are of low voltage.However numerous methods exist to increase the voltage or kinetic energy of thesecondary electrons.

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