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Iodine Clock Reaction Kinetics

Iodine Clock Reaction Kinetics

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Published by Dionee Liefman

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Published by: Dionee Liefman on Jul 12, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/08/2013

 
©
Dionee Liefman 2008
Iodine Clock Reaction Kinetics
Introduction
The aim of this experiment is to determine the effect of the reactant concentrationand temperature on the rate of a chemical reaction.This reaction is the oxidation of the iodide ion (I
-
) to molecular iodine (I
2
) usingsodium persulphate (Na
2
S
2
O
8
):2I
-(aq)
+ S
2
O
82-(aq)
 
I
2(aq)
+ 2SO
42-(aq)
(1)Ordinarily upon the completion of this reaction, the solution would become a browncolour, denoting the presence of I2 molecules. However, thiosulphate ions were alsoadded to this mixture (S2O32-) causing the reaction below to occur instantaneouslyas I2 is produced:I
2
+ 2S
2
O
32-
 
2I
-
+ S
4
O
62-
(2)This second reaction is so fast that the brown colour of I
2
is unable to develop, as thethiosulphate ions reduce the iodine back to iodide ions instantaneously.As the I
2
is in excess and the thiosulphate ions are a limited reagent, the fixedamount of thiosulphate added will soon be used up. Thus, the excess I
2
moleculesthat were not reduced by the thiosulphate will react with the I
-
ions produced and thestarch indicator added will react with the subsequent I
3-
in the solution, displaying ablue colour.The initial concentration of thiosulphate is known and the duration of time for thethiosulphate to be consumed was measured, so the rate of reaction 1 can bedetermined. Reaction 2 is known as the ‘iodine clock’ reaction.By repeating this experiment with different concentrations of S
2
O
82-
and I
-
, the effectof these changing persulphate and iodide ion concentrations on the initial rate of reaction 1 can be determined.
Procedure
150 mL beakers, stirrer bead, 2 measuring cylindersSolution A: 0.20M potassium iodide solutionSolution B: 0.005M sodium thiosulphate solutionSolution C: 0.10M sodium persulphate(1)The two graduated measuring cylinders were labelled – one cylinder labelledI
-
and the other labelled S
2
O
82-
. A beaker was filled with 120mL of iodidesolution and another was filled with 120mL of persulphate solution.(2)10mL of thiosulphate (same for all mixtures) was measured into a 150mLbeaker, 3 drops of starch was added and a stirring bead was placed inside.(3)As one person poured in the correct volumes of iodine and persulphate(volume specific to trial), the other person started the timer. The exact timethe solution turned blue was measured.
 
©
Dionee Liefman 2008
Results
Data Table 1: Proportions of mixingMixtureSolution A (I
-
)(mL)Water (mL)Solution B (S
2
O
3-
)(mL)Solution C(S
2
O
82-
) (mL)120.00.010.020.0215.05.010.020.0310.010.010.020.045.015.010.020.0520.05.010.015.0620.010.010.010.0720.015.010.05.0Data Table 2: Observed resultsMixtureTemperature (
°
C)Time for colour to appear (s)Average class time of reaction (s)1208889
±
3219136131
±
4319227220
±
3420506493
±
5520124125
±
5620193198
±
5720427421
±
Data Table 3: Calculating approx. initial rateTrial[I
-
][S
2
O
82-
]Approx. initial rate18x10
-2
4x10
-2
5.6x10
-6
26x10
-2
4x10
-2
3.8x10
-6
34x10
-2
4x10
-2
2.3x10
-6
42x10
-2
4x10
-2
1.0x10
-6
58x10
-2
3x10
-2
4.0x10
-6
68x10
-2
2x10
-2
2.5x10
-6
78x10
-2
1x10
-2
1.2x10
-6
n(I
2
) used/consumed = 5x10
-5
mol/2 = 2.5x10
-5
molIf this I
2
hadn’t been removed from the solution by the 2S
2
O
32-
the concentration of I
2
would have gotten up to:[I
2
] = n/v = 2.5x10
-5
/50x10
-3
= 5x10
-4
MApprox. initial rate of reaction = [I
2
]/
t = 5x10
-4
/89 = 5.6x10
-6
M
-1
s
-1
Calculations
Calculating the rate law equation for this reaction:R
1
/R
3
= k [I
-
]
a
[S
2
O
82-
]
b
/ k [I
-
]
a
[S
2
O
82-
]
b
 5.6/2.3 = [I
-
]
a
/ [I
-
]
a
2.43 = 2
a

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