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RIRIN

RIRIN

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Published by: ririnrumyanissavetaliana on Oct 12, 2010
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10/12/2010

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I. Problems in the present English teaching and causes of these problemsII. Introduce the communicative approach1. The definition of communicative approach2. Two principles of communicative approach(1) Create a realistic situation(2) The class should be students-centered III. Adopt communicative approach to improve students’ ability to listen and speak, andachieve the goal of English teaching1. Three stages in communicative teaching2. Communicative activities in class3. Achieve the goal of English teaching through communicative approach IV. Conclusion
 Abstract 
Language is a means of communication. Although it is not the only form of communication among human beings, it is certainly the most important. English teachingis to teach the students how to communicate with each other, to train the students’ goodand complete language ability ------- to express their ideas correctly and to easily adjustthemselves to every kind of social situation. English teaching is a case in point. This paper is to discuss some problems of present English teaching approach, to state the principles and advantages of communicative approach, and to give some advice on howto make the English class more communicative and improve the students’ ability of listening and speaking. KEY WORDS: communicative approach the ability of listening and speakingsimulationCommunicative activities 
Communicative Approach in English Teaching
 
I. Problems in the present English teaching and causes of theseproblems
 
As present, English teaching reform has been carried out in schools, some teachingreform has been succeeded, but there are still some problems in English teaching. Thestudents who have had several years of training in English are still unable to actually usethe language. For example, the students can’t understand what the teachers have said andthey can’t express themselves, their ability of listening and speaking is not up to standard.They can’t communicate with others in English. What they have learned is only used inexamination. Many people believe that is because the teachers do not do their job properly. Actually, many teachers ignore the importance of the students’ ability of listening and speaking. Now the teachers have been faced with the problem of improvingthe students’ ability of listening and speaking.English teaching reform is carried out on a national-wide scale, how do we evaluate it?Most of headmasters and teachers only pay attention to the marks of the entranceexamination. It seems that some students have got high marks in examination, but their listening and speaking are very poor, they can’t communicate with what they havelearned. Secondary school students have taken six years to master the essential of Englishand still are not able to speak the language well in many cases. In essence, the students’language ability is incomplete.Furthermore, many teachers think that they have taught the basic knowledge of thelanguage to students; it is simple enough for the students to use the knowledge, later, tocommunicate. However, it wrong to think that knowledge of how sentences are used incommunication follows from knowledge of the correct way to make them. The thought of teachers is also a reason resulting in the fact ------- the students’ language is incomplete.Investigating the west education of foreign language, we can find that the teachers never divide the four abilities in their teaching. They always put the training students’ speakingability at the first place, they drill the students’ listening ability in the wholecommunicative process. So our teachers face with the problem of changing our teachingmethods to improve the students’ ability of listening and speaking. 
II. Introduce the communicative approach1. The definition of communicative approach
Communicative approach refers to the theory of teaching according to the principle thatthe students and teachers should genuinely communicate with each other using the targetlanguage.
2. Two principles of communicative approach
Among the numerous principles of communicative approach, there are two pieces of  principles, which are more important in China’s English teaching.
2.1 Create more realistic situation
The current teaching methods don’t emphasize the real world situations and fail tocultivate students’ spontaneity. Artificial conventions and mechanical question-and-answer sequences fall short of the flexible, spontaneous kind of communicativeinteraction required for performing a task with the context of situation relevant to the realworld. Such classroom teaching forces learners to talk about things that are not of their own choosing and not based on their actual needs. Instead, they are provided with a rigidset of guided structures in isolation. Taught in this way, the learners frequently fail whenthey are faced with the read to produce the language related to a specific situation.
 
Simulation techniques seem to be a better alternative, as they seek to place learners in asituation where they are asked to take on different roles and to. accomplish their specifictasks, including problem solving. They offer an opportunity for the learners to practiceusing the language in the right place at the right time and as appropriately as possible.The most obvious advantage of these kind techniques is that it puts the learners inrealistic situations. By simulating the physical circumstances of certain situations, thestudents can have the opportunity to use and to practice the sort of language, particularlythe vocabulary related to that situation, so that learners are rehearsed for real life. Inaddition, they can express what they want to say whenever the situation calls for it. Theteacher provides the best conditions for learning through creating the realist situation.
2.2 The class should be students-centered
The focus of classroom should be shifted from the teacher to students. The presentteaching in China, however, is just the opposite; the class is just mainly teacher-centered.The teacher does most the talking and always has the whole class under his strictcontrol by lecturing, questioning, correcting students and often supplying correct answersto the exercises.In such a class, the teacher is obviously the most authoritative person. Students alwaysact according to what the teacher wants them to accomplish put not what they themselveswant to accomplish.Such kind of teachers’ role, in fact, encourages the students to depend too much onteachers without thinking independently. So it appears that sometimes, even if thestudents have understood the text they are reading, they do not have the courage to speak out when called upon, for fear that they may not be right. As a result, the long-term practice of teacher-centeredness in education has actually lessened the opportunities for the students to analyze and judge things for themselves, and it has possibly encouragedthe students’ laziness in thinking. Giving up their natural instincts for active thinking,they may spend most of their time copying from the blackboard, following the teacher’stalk and taking the note. Too much of this will harm the students’ initiatives and reducetheir enthusiasm in study.The class should be learners-centered. Communicative approach makes learners to bethemselves and requires the classroom instructor to play a secondary role, trying to keepfocus on the students not on himself and encouraging students to communicate amongthemselves. The teacher is expected to “lead from behind”, i.e., to act more as adviser andto participate in the interactions if possible. The teacher should allow full scope for hisstudents’ spontaneous learning process and give more opportunities for the students totalk, perform and express their own ideas. In this way, the students will no longer feelinferior. Gradually, they will form a positive attitude toward English studying. The proposed teachers’ role in the classroom is significant not only for classroommethodological reasons, but also, as we shall see, for its effect on human relationships inclassroom. This relationship will contribute favorably to effective learning.The role and relationship between the teacher and students are fixed by the students-centered principle. It is to say that the students are the main part in communication, whilethe teacher helps the students to communicate. The teacher can play several roles in theclass: he directs the class activities, designs the scene of communication, and also he is aconsultant ------ guiding the communication and solving the problems in communication.At the same time, the teacher should be a partner of communication ------ he takes part in

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