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Notes on Information Technology part 2

Notes on Information Technology part 2

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Published by James

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Published by: James on Oct 12, 2007
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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05/08/2013

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The
.NET framework
created by Microsoft is a softwaredevelopment platform focused on:
Development Software
Products (various Servers)
Services –authentication technologyGoals of .NET are:
rapid application development,
platform independence
network transparency
It is not a single product or technology – instead it isconsidered a brand and/or marketing strategic initiative
.NET is Microsoft's strategic initiative for server and desktopdevelopment for the next decade. According to Microsoft, .NETincludes many technologies that are designed to facilitate rapiddevelopment of Internet and intranet applications..NET has brought new functionalities and tools to the API.These innovations allow programmers to develop applicationsfor both Windows, the web as well as components and services(web services)..NET provides a
new object oriented API.
 .NET is designed to be sufficiently generic that many differenthigh-level languages can be compiled.
J#.NET
VB.NET
C#.NET
C++.NET
Provides powerful development environment
All .NET languages compile to intermediate language(
MSIL
)
Then, executes in the run time environment
Windows class hierarchy is redesigned (Windows APIand .NET services from server family)
Gives native support for XML, SOAP and RPC and .NET classsupport 
The two primary components of .NET are the
CommonLanguage Infrastructure (CLI)
and the
CommonLanguage Runtime (CLR)
.The
CLI
is a set of specifications for a runtime environment,including a common type system, base class library, and amachine-independent intermediate code known as theCommon Intermediate Language (CIL).The
CLR 
provides a platform for running code that conforms tothe CLI; before CIL can be executed, the CLR must translate it(typically via just-in-time compilation) into native machinecode.
 
Open Source:Also a marketing term where the license is similar to theGNU GPLHistory
Open Source started with Netscape Navigator 1998, with groupled individuals Eric Raymond; used the opportunity to releaseNavigator as Open Source to clarify it from the word “free” Open Source Initiative (
OSI
) started by Eric Raymond & BrucePerensEliminates the ambiguity of free software as being anti-commercial
Type of LicensesBSD
– considered public domain, can be modified withoutrestriction and does NOT prohibit commercial use (e.g. OS X)
Traditional Software Creation Process:
1.Write Source Code2.Compile Executable3.Sell Executable4.Sell Support, Documents & Training
Open Source Software Creation Process
1.Write Source Code2.Distribute source & Executable3.Sell Support, Docs & Training
Evolutionary Approach
OSS is placed on the internet for
Peer Appraisal
for
suggestions and modifications
then incorporatedback into the project
New ideas or concepts are build on previouslyconstructed ideas or concepts
 “
All Bugs are shallow to many eyes
” 
Development funded and contributed by:
Corporations, Organisations, Hobbyists, Advocates(e.g. Sun Microsystems) that sells a commercial version withsupport, training and documentation
Distributed under the terms of the Open Source license
Both source code and executable are freely and widelyavailable for any one to use
Program must include the source code and allowdistributionOR
Must include a well publicized means of obtaining thesource code
Anyone can take the code and modify it in any way, aslong as those terms and conditions are also releasedunder the same terms and conditions
License must allow modifications and
derived works
must be distributed under the same terms of theoriginal software
No discrimination against persons, groups, or fields of endeavour
License must not be specific to a product or tied to aproduct
License must not contaminate other software – doesnot place restrictions on other software that isdistributed along with the licensed software
Key Facts about Open Source:
Led by a community of hobbyists, hackers andtechnical community
Exploit the weakness in a closed system
Advantages of OSS:
Rapid release cycle “
RELEASE EARLY, RELEASEOFTEN”
More reliable, stable and secure
May work slower on Windows based machines
Make developers feel involved
GUI similar to Windows based apps
Offers rich features
File format compatibility
Separate downloads
Not tied to the operating system
Zero Cost
Disadvantages of OSS:
Could be expensive
Download costs?
May lack facilities
May be have defects
May have forked versions
Not compatible with Windows based platforms
Not supported or maintained by large group of developers
Varied programming support
Examples of Open Source Products:
Sendmail, BIND, Apache, PHP, Perl and Python. Mozilla
 
GNU
– does not allow addition of restrictions beyond those italready imposes, founded by Richard StallmanBased on political & philosophical ideals “Free as in Free Speech, not free beer” Became associate with zero costsFreedoms of GNU GPL and FSF (Free Software Foundation):1.Free to run program2.Study the program3.Redistribute the program4.Improve it5.Release to the publicAlso, ensures that the freedoms are passed to derivative works(e.g. Linux Kernel , GNU Compiler, Perl)
GNU Lesser General Public License
Designed to compromise other license schemes so it can belinked to a non-GPL program which may be free or proprietary

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