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Titration of NaOH With Acetic Acids

Titration of NaOH With Acetic Acids

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Published by: geek3112 on Oct 12, 2010
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12/09/2012

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 1
 ABSTRACT / SUMMARY
 An experiment is conducted to determine theconcentration of acetic acid (HC
2
H
3
O
2
) in vinegar besidespreparing a stock solution of standardized solution of sodiumhydroxide (NaOH). The NaOH solution is titrated against thestandard potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) solution. Theend point of the titration is determined by using pH electrode tomeasure the shape of the pH curve. The same techniques areapplied in order to determine the concentration as well aspercentage by mass of acetic acid in commercial vinegar. Thevolumes of NaOH solution used for both titrations are 12.05milliliters and 17.57 milliliters respectively. The percentage bymass of acetic acid in vinegar is 6.373%. The whole experimentis completed and successfully conducted.
INTRODUCTION
 A titration is an analytical procedure used to determinethe concentration of a sample by reacting it with a standardsolution.In a titration, the standard solution, which appears to beNaOH solution, goes in a burette, which is a piece of glasswareused to measure the volume of solvent to approximately 0.1milliliters of accuracy. The solution that undergoes titrationgoes in an Erlenmeyer flask, which should be large enough toaccommodate both the sample and the standard solution that isbeing added.
 
 2
 A pH meter or pH electrode is used in this experimentinstead of using phenolphthalein as an indicator solution inorder to determine the pH value at each 1 milliliter and 0.5milliliter increments at a time during the titration process. A pHmeter uses an electrode to measure the pH of a solution. Theelectron is stored in distilled water in order to keep it at aneutral pH.
 AIMS / OBJECTIVES
The experiment is conducted to achieve the objectiveswhich include the determination of the concentration of aceticacid in vinegar by titration with a standardized solution of sodium hydroxide, the molarity of sodium hydroxide needed for neutralizing the vinegar in titration.
THEORY
In the first set of titrations, a procedure calledstandardization is conducted to determine the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution, which is notoriously difficult toprepare to an accurate concentration. In this experiment, theneutralization reaction occurs between an acid and a base,which produce a salt and water.C
8
H
4
O
4
H
 ±
(aq) + OH
 ±
(aq)  C
8
H
4
O
2-
(aq) + H
2
O (l)
 
 3
Potassium hydrogen phthalate or generally known as KHPis a potassium salt of the phthalate ion, C
8
H
5
O
4-
, which is aweak acid. The reaction between C
8
H
5
O
4±
(aq) and NaOH is atypical acid-base neutralization reaction:C
8
H
5
O
4±
(aq) + NaOH(aq)  C
8
H
4
O
42-
(aq) + Na
+
(aq) + H
2
O (l)In the standardization procedure, the NaOH solution isadded to the KHP solution via a burette. At the endpoint, thenumber of moles of NaOH contained in the added solutionequals the number of moles of KHP neutralized. Since thenumber of moles of NaOH as well as the volume of solution isknown, thus the concentration of NaOH can be determined.The point at which stoichiometric amounts of each reagenthave reacted is called the equivalence point. The point atwhich the reaction is observed to be complete is called the endpoint. The end point should coincide with the equivalencepoint.Once the NaOH solution is standardized, it can be used toanalyze vinegar and determine the concentration of acetic acidcontent.

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