flight planet for low altitude photography anddigital camera).2.
Attitude, Heading and Position Reference System(AHPRS) : this is the main reference input forautonomous autopilot system. The AHPRS outputseuler angles (roll, pitch and yaw), true northabsolute heading and position (latitude, longitudeand altitude).3.
Autopilot System : this is the main controller of the airframe. It consists of two main part, the lowlevel control system that governs the pose / attitude of the aircraft based on the objectivetrajectories. The second parts is the waypointsequencer. This part determined which location theairframe should go (latitude, longitude andaltitude), and thus determine the trajectories inputthe control system.4.
Digital Camera Payload Management System andAutomatic Flight Planner : The Flight Plannercomponent will first make automatic waypoint(longitude, altitude, and altitude) that willoptimally covers the area of interest to bephotographed. Inputs to this systems are boundaryof the area (longitude and altitude), scale of thedesired aerial photo and horizontal-vertical overlapof each photo segment, then the system willautomatically determined the altitude andautomatic sequencing of digital camera shutterrelease. The Digital Camera Payload Managementwill simply command the shutter release sequenceand logging the exact time, oerientation andposition of the shutter release (usually recognize asmetadata, this information is needed for postprocessing and automatic rapid mosaicking).5.
Ground Station Software : this component willenable the operator to plan and monitor themission execution the Autonomous UnmannedAerial Vehicle, as well as reconfiguring themission during execution. The monitoring is donein real time because a high speed long range datamodem is used to transmit and receive missionparameter between UAV and ground station.6.
Photo indexer software : this software will enablequick view of the relative position of each phototaken during flight. The main objective is toexamine the photo coverage and blank spot, soanother flight to cover the blank spot can bedecided while still on location. Ultimately thissoftware will help the automosaicking process.7.
Final Integration : these steps are taken when allsupporting components of the UAV are completelydeveloped.Development of Post Processing Software1.
Automatic Photo Mosaicking : this component willautomatically combined the aerial photographs thatcovers small area along with the metadata(longitude, latitude and altitude of the digitalcamera) into single large aerial photographs thatcovers larger area.2.
Aerial Photo based Agriculture InformationSystem : this is the tools that will be used by thefarmers to make analysis to the aerial photographand support the decision making about the cropfield. Remote Sensing and Geographic InformationSystem concepts are involved in this system alongwith Precision Agriculture good practices.Overall System Testing : this steps is conducted after theUnmanned Aerial System and Post Processing arecompletely developed. The objective is to make positivefeedback to the overall research and development and topublicize the system to the potential users : the farmers.Not all steps have been completed on this research. Thispaper only emphasize the instrumentation side of thisresearch. The airframe for this specific purpose will bedeveloped after the instrumentation have been completed.The Post Processing Software is also in ongoingdevelopment.
Instrumentation of UAV for Rapid Aerial PhotoSystem4.1
Attitude, Heading and Position Reference System(AHPRS)
AHPRS will be used as main reference for autopilot systemas well as for Digital Camera Payload Management System.
In order to control an aerial platform correctly, one of theinput needed by the autopilot control system is attitude.Attitude is usually represented by 3 rotations of the aerialplatform. These rotations are roll, pitch and yaw. There areseveral different rotations representations used. Amongthem are the euler angle, C
matrix and the quaternionangle representation. The euler angle (roll
) is very intuitive and widely used in aerospace field.But this representation suffers singularity near 90 degree of pitch angle. C
matrix or direction cosine matrix is a 3x3matrix that represent sequential rotation of roll, pitch andyaw. This representation doesn't suffer from singularity, butit's not intuitive and uses 9 values to represent attitude. Hereis the C
θ φ θ φ θ
ψ θ φ ψ φ ψ θ φ ψ φ ψ θ
ψ θ φ ψ φ ψ θ φ ψ φ ψ θ
ψ θ φ
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