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Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Instrumentation for Rapid Aerial Photo System

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Instrumentation for Rapid Aerial Photo System

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Published by: UAVs Australia on Oct 12, 2010
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Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Instrumentation forRapid Aerial Photo System
Widyawardana Adiprawita*
Adang Suwandi Ahmad
and Jaka Semibiring
*School of Electric Engineering and Informatics
Institut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Id.e-mail: wadiprawita@stei.itb.ac.id
School of Electric Engineering and InformaticsInstitut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Id.e-mail: asa@isrg.itb.ac.id
School of Electric Engineering and InformaticsInstitut Teknologi Bandung, Bandung, Id.e-mail: jaka@ itb.ac.id
This research will proposed a new kind of relatively lowcost autonomous UAV that will enable farmers to make justin time mosaics of aerial photo of their crop. These mosaicsof aerial photo should be able to be produced with relativelylow cost and within the 24 hours of acquisition constraint.The autonomous UAV will be equipped with payloadmanagement system specifically developed for rapid aerialmapping. As mentioned before turn around time is the keyfactor, so accuracy is not the main focus (not orthorectifiedaerial mapping). This system will also be equipped withspecial software to post process the aerial photos to producethe mosaic aerial photo map.
Agriculture is one of the main income sources in Indonesia.Most of the Indonesian citizens have jobs in Agriculturefield. Despite this importance of agriculture in Indonesia,there is still lacks of good agriculture practices in Indonesia.One of the emerging practices in agriculture is "PrecisionAgriculture". Precision Agriculture refers to the use of aninformation and technology-based system for fieldmanagement of crops. Information technology-basedsystem will help the farmer making the right decision. Thisapproach basically means adding the right amount of treatment at the right time and the right location within afield—that’s the precision part. Farmers want to know theright amounts of water, chemicals, pesticides, andherbicides they should use as well as precisely where andwhen to apply them.By using the tools of precision Agriculture, farmers canspecifically target areas of need within their fields andapply just the right amounts of chemicals where and whenthey are needed, saving both time and money andminimizing their impact on the environment. Irrigation isboth difficult and expensive and gets even more difficultwhen the topography of the terrain is graded. Farmers havea tendency to over irrigate, spending both more time andmoney than is necessary. Often times farmers look atweather variables and then schedule irrigation based on thatinformation. But if they had better information, they coulduse scientific models and equations to compute moreprecisely, how much water their crop is using or how muchmore is needed. And all this require to have an accuratemap of the field. Much of the ability to implement precisionagriculture is based on information technologies; inparticular, global positioning and navigation and geospatial / remote sensing mapping and analysis.As mentioned before one of the key technology in precisionagriculture is geospatial / remote sensing mapping andanalysis. An optimum remote sensing system for precisionagriculture would provide data as often as twice per week for irrigation scheduling and once every two weeks forgeneral crop damage detection. The spatial resolution of thedata should be as high as 2 to 5 square meters per pixel withpositional accuracy of within 2 meters. Additionally, thedata must be available to the farmer within 24 hours of acquiring them. Turnaround time is more important tofarmers than data accuracy. They would gladly acceptremote sensing measurements that are as poor as 75 percentaccurate if they were assured of getting them within 24hours of acquisition. Unfortunately, there are currently noEarth orbiting satellites that can meet all of a precisionfarmer’s requirements. This is where the AutonomousUnmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) will play its role.
ICIUS 2007Oct 24-25, 2007Bali, IndonesiaICIUS2007-A020-PISBN 978-979-16955-0-3111© 2007 ICIUS
Figure 1:
The Proposed System2
Research Description2.1
Problem Definition
Aerial photo of crop fields is needed to enablefarmers make the right decision about kind andamount of treatment at the right time and the rightlocation within a field.
Turn around time of the aerial photo is moreimportant to farmers than data accuracy. Usuallythe farmers need the information within 24 hoursof acquisition.
A system that enables the farmers to make fast turnaround time of the aerial photo of the crop field isneeded.
Cost is important matter, this includes low firsttime investment and low operational andmaintenance cost.
Ease of operation is also important matter,considering the availability of human resourcesquality.
Research Objective
Design and implement an UAV platform which issmall enough to be operated from typical crop fieldin Indonesia without the need of special airstrip.The proposed launching method is by hand, so theUAV platform should be able to do short take off and landing (STOL, short take off and landing).
Design and implement a low cost autonomousautopilot navigation system that will be used toautomatically navigate the UAV to cover the cropfield to produce the mosaic aerial photo
Design and implements a simple flight planningsoftware that will generates waypoints coveringthe crop field optimally
Design and implement payload managementsystem onboard the UAV that enable the automatictiming of digital camera shutter release for aerialphoto taking
Design and implement a post processing softwarethat automates the mosaicking process of the aerialphotos, so the turn around time will be fulfilled
For future development : development of specificpayload for precision agriculture other than digitalcamera (such as bio chemical sensor,environmental sensor, weather sensor, etc)
Development of Autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicle1.
Airframe : this is the aerial platform that will beinstrumented with autonomous autopilot systemand carry the mission specific payload (automatic
ICIUS 2007Oct 24-25, 2007Bali, IndonesiaICIUS2007-A020-PISBN 978-979-16955-0-3112© 2007 ICIUS
flight planet for low altitude photography anddigital camera).2.
Attitude, Heading and Position Reference System(AHPRS) : this is the main reference input forautonomous autopilot system. The AHPRS outputseuler angles (roll, pitch and yaw), true northabsolute heading and position (latitude, longitudeand altitude).3.
Autopilot System : this is the main controller of the airframe. It consists of two main part, the lowlevel control system that governs the pose / attitude of the aircraft based on the objectivetrajectories. The second parts is the waypointsequencer. This part determined which location theairframe should go (latitude, longitude andaltitude), and thus determine the trajectories inputthe control system.4.
Digital Camera Payload Management System andAutomatic Flight Planner : The Flight Plannercomponent will first make automatic waypoint(longitude, altitude, and altitude) that willoptimally covers the area of interest to bephotographed. Inputs to this systems are boundaryof the area (longitude and altitude), scale of thedesired aerial photo and horizontal-vertical overlapof each photo segment, then the system willautomatically determined the altitude andautomatic sequencing of digital camera shutterrelease. The Digital Camera Payload Managementwill simply command the shutter release sequenceand logging the exact time, oerientation andposition of the shutter release (usually recognize asmetadata, this information is needed for postprocessing and automatic rapid mosaicking).5.
Ground Station Software : this component willenable the operator to plan and monitor themission execution the Autonomous UnmannedAerial Vehicle, as well as reconfiguring themission during execution. The monitoring is donein real time because a high speed long range datamodem is used to transmit and receive missionparameter between UAV and ground station.6.
Photo indexer software : this software will enablequick view of the relative position of each phototaken during flight. The main objective is toexamine the photo coverage and blank spot, soanother flight to cover the blank spot can bedecided while still on location. Ultimately thissoftware will help the automosaicking process.7.
Final Integration : these steps are taken when allsupporting components of the UAV are completelydeveloped.Development of Post Processing Software1.
Automatic Photo Mosaicking : this component willautomatically combined the aerial photographs thatcovers small area along with the metadata(longitude, latitude and altitude of the digitalcamera) into single large aerial photographs thatcovers larger area.2.
Aerial Photo based Agriculture InformationSystem : this is the tools that will be used by thefarmers to make analysis to the aerial photographand support the decision making about the cropfield. Remote Sensing and Geographic InformationSystem concepts are involved in this system alongwith Precision Agriculture good practices.Overall System Testing : this steps is conducted after theUnmanned Aerial System and Post Processing arecompletely developed. The objective is to make positivefeedback to the overall research and development and topublicize the system to the potential users : the farmers.Not all steps have been completed on this research. Thispaper only emphasize the instrumentation side of thisresearch. The airframe for this specific purpose will bedeveloped after the instrumentation have been completed.The Post Processing Software is also in ongoingdevelopment.
Instrumentation of UAV for Rapid Aerial PhotoSystem4.1
Attitude, Heading and Position Reference System(AHPRS)
AHPRS will be used as main reference for autopilot systemas well as for Digital Camera Payload Management System.
Attitude Representation
In order to control an aerial platform correctly, one of theinput needed by the autopilot control system is attitude.Attitude is usually represented by 3 rotations of the aerialplatform. These rotations are roll, pitch and yaw. There areseveral different rotations representations used. Amongthem are the euler angle, C
matrix and the quaternionangle representation. The euler angle (roll
, pitch
) is very intuitive and widely used in aerospace field.But this representation suffers singularity near 90 degree of pitch angle. C
matrix or direction cosine matrix is a 3x3matrix that represent sequential rotation of roll, pitch andyaw. This representation doesn't suffer from singularity, butit's not intuitive and uses 9 values to represent attitude. Hereis the C
θ φ θ φ θ  ψ θ φ ψ φ ψ θ φ ψ φ ψ θ  ψ θ φ ψ φ ψ θ φ ψ φ ψ θ  ψ θ φ 
coscoscossinsin sinsincoscossinsinsincoscoscossincos cossincossinsincossinsinsincoscoscos ),,(
ICIUS 2007Oct 24-25, 2007Bali, IndonesiaICIUS2007-A020-PISBN 978-979-16955-0-3113© 2007 ICIUS

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