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Chemistry A Unit 2 Lesson 1- Unit ConversionsRatings: (0)|Views: 649|Likes: 1

Published by jtaylor422

Chapter 2

Unit Conversions

[M]athematics… is the easiest of sciences, a fact which is obvious in that no one’s brain rejects it…. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Unit Analysis Rounding Off and Significant Figures Density and Density Calculations Percentage and Percentage Calculations A Summary of the Unit Analysis Process Temperature Conversions

Roger Bacon (c. 1214-c. 1294), English philosopher and scientist

Stand firm in your refusal to remain conscious during algebra. In real life, I assure you, there is

Unit Conversions

[M]athematics… is the easiest of sciences, a fact which is obvious in that no one’s brain rejects it…. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Unit Analysis Rounding Off and Significant Figures Density and Density Calculations Percentage and Percentage Calculations A Summary of the Unit Analysis Process Temperature Conversions

Roger Bacon (c. 1214-c. 1294), English philosopher and scientist

Stand firm in your refusal to remain conscious during algebra. In real life, I assure you, there is

Chapter 2

Unit Conversions

[M]athematics… is the easiest of sciences, a fact which is obvious in that no one’s brain rejects it…. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Unit Analysis Rounding Off and Significant Figures Density and Density Calculations Percentage and Percentage Calculations A Summary of the Unit Analysis Process Temperature Conversions

Roger Bacon (c. 1214-c. 1294), English philosopher and scientist

Stand firm in your refusal to remain conscious during algebra. In real life, I assure you, there is

Unit Conversions

[M]athematics… is the easiest of sciences, a fact which is obvious in that no one’s brain rejects it…. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Unit Analysis Rounding Off and Significant Figures Density and Density Calculations Percentage and Percentage Calculations A Summary of the Unit Analysis Process Temperature Conversions

Roger Bacon (c. 1214-c. 1294), English philosopher and scientist

Stand firm in your refusal to remain conscious during algebra. In real life, I assure you, there is

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08/31/2012

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Chapter 2

Un it Co nversio ns

33

ou may agree with Roger Bacon that mathematics is the easiest o sciences,

but many beginning chemistry students would not. Because they have ound

mathematics challenging, they wish it were not so important or learning

chemistry—or or answering so many o the questions that arise in everyday

lie. Tey can better relate to Fran Lebowitz’s advice in the second quotation. I you

are one o the latter group, it will please you to know that even though there is some

algebra in chemistry, this chapter teaches a technique or doing chemical calculations

(and many other calculations) without it. Although

this technique has several common names, it is

called unit analysis in this text. You will be using it

throughout the rest o this book, in uture chemistry

and science courses, and in act, any time you want

to calculate the number o nails you need to build

a ence, or the number o rolls o paper you require

to cover the kitchen shelves.

2.1 Unit Analysis

2.2 Rounding Off and

Signicant Figures

2.3 Density and Density

Calculations

2.4 Percentage and

Percentage

Calculations

2.5 A Summary of the

Unit Analysis

Process

2.6 Temperature

Conversions

List the metric units without prexes and the

corresponding abbreviations or length (meter, m), mass

(gram, g), and volume (liter, L). (Section 1.4)

State the numbers or ractions represented by the ollowing

metric prexes, and write their abbreviations: giga, mega,

kilo, centi, milli, micro, nano, and pico. (Section 1.4)

Given a metric unit, write its abbreviation; given an

abbreviation, write the ull name o the unit. (Section

1.4)

Describe the relationships between the metric units that

do not have prexes (such as meter, gram, and liter) and

units derived rom them by the addition o prexes—or

example, 1 km= 103 m. (Section 1.4)

Describe the Celsius, Fahrenheit,

and Kelvin scales used to report

temperature values. (See Section

1.4)

Given a value derived rom a

measurement, identiy the range

o possible values it represents, on

the basis o the assumption that

its uncertainty is±1 in the last

position reported. (For example,

8.0 mL says the value could

be rom 7.9 mL to 8.1 mL.)

(Section 1.5)

Unit analysis, the

technique for doing unit

conversions described

in this chapter, can be

used for a lot more than

chemical calculations.

[M]athematics… is the easiest of sciences, a fact which is obvious in that

no one’s brain rejects it….

Roger Bacon (c. 1214-c. 1294), English philosopher and scientist

Stand firm in your refusal to remain conscious during algebra. In real

life, I assure you, there is no such thing as algebra.

Fran Lebowitz (b. 1951), American journalist

Review Skills

Te presentation o inormation in this chapter assumes that you can already perorm

the tasks listed below. You can test your readiness to proceed by answering the Review

Questions at the end o the chapter. Tis might also be a good time to read the Chapter

Objectives, which precede the Review Questions.

34

Chapter 2 Unit Conversions

2.1Unit AnalysisMany o the questions asked in chemistry and in everyday lie can be answered by

converting one unit o measure into another. For example, suppose you are taking

care o your nephew or the weekend, and he breaks his arm. Te doctor sets the arm,

puts it in a cast, and prescribes an analgesic to help control the pain. Back at home,

ater lling the prescription, you realize that the label calls or 2 teaspoons o medicine

every six hours, but the measuring device that the pharmacy gave you is calibrated in

milliliters. You can’t nd a measuring teaspoon in your kitchen, so you’ve got to gure

out how many milliliters are equivalent to 2 tsp. It’s been a rough day, there’s a crying

boy on the couch, and you’re really tired. Is there a technique or doing the necessary

calculation that is simple and reliable? Unit analysis to the rescue!

Te main purpose o this chapter is to show you how to make many dierent types

o unit conversions, such as the one required above. You will nd that the stepwise

thought process associated with the procedure calledu n it a n a ly s is1 not only guides you

in guring out how to set up unit conversion problems but also gives you condence

that your answers are correct.

An Overview o the General Procedure

In every affair, consider what precedes and follows, and then undertake it.

Epictetus (c. 55-c. 135) Greek Philosopher

You will see many dierent types o unit conversions in this chapter, but they can all be

worked using the same general procedure. o illustrate the process, we will convert 2

teaspoons to milliliters and solve the problem o how much medicine to give the little

boy described above.

Te rst step in the procedure is to identiy the unit or the value we want to calculate.

We write this on the let side o an equals sign. Next, we identiy the value that we

will convert into the desired value, and we write it on the right side o the equals sign.

(Remember that a value constitutes both a number and a unit.) We want to know how

many milliliters are equivalent to 2 tsp. We express this question as

? mL=

2 tsp

Desired unit

Given unit

Next, we multiply by one or more conversion actors that enable us to cancel the

unwanted units and generate the desired units. A conversion actor is a ratio that

describes the relationship between two units. o create a conversion actor or

converting teaspoons to milliliters we can look in any modern cookbook (check its

index under “metric conversions”) and discover that the relationship between teaspoons

and milliliters is

1 tsp= 5 mL

1Unit ananysis has other names, including the actor-label method, the conversion actor method, and

dimensional analysis.

2.1 Unit Analysis

35

objeC tive 2

Tis relationship can be used to produce two ratios, or conversion actors:

5 mL

1 tsp

5 mL

1 tsp

or

Te rst o these can be used to convert teaspoons to milliliters, and the second can be

used to convert milliliters to teaspoons.

Te nal step in the procedure is to multiply the known unit (2 tsp) by the proper

conversion actor, the one that converts teaspoons to milliliters.

? mL=

2 tsp

=

10 mL

5 mL

1 tsp

Desired unit

Given unit

Conversion factor

Answer with desired unit

Because 1 teaspoon is equivalent to 5 milliliters, multiplying by 5 mL/1 tsp is the

same as multiplying by 1. Te volume associated with 2 tsp does not change when we

multiply by the conversion actor, but the value (number and unit) does. Because one

milliliter is one-th the volume o one teaspoon, there are ve times as many milliliters

or a given volume. Tereore, 2 tsp and 10 mL represent the same volume.

Note that the units in a unit analysis setup cancel just like variables in an algebraic

equation. Tereore, when we want to convert tsp to mL, we choose the ratio that has

tsp on the bottom to cancel the tsp unit in our original value and leave us with the

desired unit o mL. I you have used correct conversion actors, and i your units cancel

to yield the desired unit or units, you can be condent that you will arrive at the correct

answer.

Metric‑Metric Conversions

As you saw in Chapter 1, one o the convenient eatures o the metric system is that

the relationships between metric units can be derived rom the metric prexes. Tese

relationships can easily be translated into conversion actors. For example, milli- means

10-3 (or 0.001 or 1/1000), so a milliliter (mL) is 10 -3 liters (L). Tus there are 1000

or 103 milliliters in a liter. (A complete list o the prexes that you need to know to

solve the problems in this text is in able 1.2.) wo possible sets o conversion actors

or relating milliliters to liters can be obtained rom these relationships.

103 mL = 1 L leads to

or

103 m L

1 L

103 m L

1 L

1 mL = 10

−

3 L leads to

or

10

−

3L

1 mL

10

−

3L

1 mL

In the remainder o this text, metric-metric conversion actors will have positive

exponents like those ound in the rst set o conversion actors above.

objeC tive 2

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