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Published by Vasava Ganesh

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Published by: Vasava Ganesh on Oct 13, 2010
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NameAmit GupteRegistration / Roll No. 511023366Course Master of Business Administration (MBA)Subject
Semester Semester 2Subject Number
 ___________________ Sign of Center Head __________________ Sign of Evaluator ________________ Sign of Coordinator
1. What are the components of systems productivity? Explain how CADandCIM help in improving productivity.
Production management encompasses all activities which go intoconversion of a sate of inputs into outputs which are useful to meethuman needs. It involves the identification of the perquisitematerials, knowledge of the processes, and installation of equipments necessary to convert or transform the materials toproducts. System productivity is generally expressed as the ratio of outputs to inputs. Productivity can be calculated for a singleoperation, a functional unit, a department division or a plant. It is ameasure of the efficiency of the system and looks at the economiesachieved during the processes. Every process will have number of contributors-people machines, facilitating goods, ancillaryequipments, technology, etc. Which help in achieving maximumproductivity - each element attempting to enhance the contributionof other elements? Enhancement of productivity is achieved byeither reducing the inputs for the same output or increasing theoutput by using the same input.Opportunities exist at all stages of the workflow. The entire system of introduce measures for increasing productivity.However in actualmanufacturing situations, the inefficiencies will have cascadingeffect in hampering productivity.Communication, effective review processes and innovative methodswill ensure optimization of resources. Capital productivity: Capitaldeployed in plant, machinery, buildings and the distribution systemas well as working capital are components of the oust omanufacture and need to be productive. Demand fluctuations,uncertainties of production owing to breakdowns and inventoriesbeing crated drag the productivity down. Therefore, strategies areneeded to maximize the utilization of the funds allotted towardscapital. Adapting to new technologies, outsourcing and balancing of the workstations to reduce the proportion of idle times onequipments are the focus of this section.Computers in design and manufacturing applications make itpossible to remove much of the tedium and manual labor involved.For example, the many design specifications, blueprints, materiallists, and other documents needed to build complex machines canrequire thousands of highly technical and accurate drawings andcharts. If the engineers decide structural components need to bechanged, all of these plans and drawings must be changed. Prior to
CAD/CAM, human designers and draftspersons had to change themmanually, a time consuming and error-prone process. When a CADsystem is used, the computer can automatically evaluate andchange all corresponding documents instantly. In addition, by usinginteractive graphics workstations, designers, engineers, andarchitects can create models or drawings, increase or decreasesizes, rotate or change them at will, and see results instantly onscreen.CAD is particularly valuable in space programs, where manyunknown design variables are involved. Previously, engineersdepended upon trial-and-error testing and modification, a timeconsuming and possibly life-threatening process. However, whenaided by computer simulation and testing, a great deal of time,money, and possibly lives can be saved. Besides its use in themilitary, CAD is also used in civil aeronautics, automotive, and dataprocessing industries.CAM, commonly utilized in conjunction with CAD, uses computers tocommunicate instructions to automated machinery. CAM techniquesare especially suited for manufacturing plants, where tasks arerepetitive, tedious, or dangerous for human workers.Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM), a term popularized by Joseph Harrington in 1975, is also known as Autofacturing. CIM is aprogrammable manufacturing method designed to link CAD, CAM,industrial robotics, and machine manufacturing using unattendedprocessing workstations. CIM offers uninterrupted operation fromraw materials to finished product, with the added benefits of qualityassurance and automated assembly.
2. What do you understand by ‘industry best practice’? Briefly explaindifferent types of Benchmarking.
Industry best practice:Each industry would have developed over years or decades.Materials would have changed, processes would have changed. Asall products or services are meant to serve needs of the customers,they undergo continuous changes – both in shapes and features.Because of research that is conducted, materials and methods goon improve incessarily. The companies that were at the forceinnovate to stay in business as new entrants would be adopting thelatest techniques that the pioneers had taken decades to establish.So the practices adopted by various firms in any industry would endup adopting almost similar methods of getting an output required.

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