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David vs. Arroyo

David vs. Arroyo

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Published by Ronald Sarcaoga

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Published by: Ronald Sarcaoga on Oct 14, 2010
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Republic of the Philippines
SUPREME COURT
Manila
G.R. No. 171396 May 3, 2006PROF. RANDOLF S. DAVID, LORENZO TAÑADA III,RONALD LLAMAS, H. HARRY L. ROQUE, JR., JOEL RUIZBUTUYAN, ROGER R. RAYEL, GARY S. MALLARI,ROMEL REGALADO BAGARES, CHRISTOPHER F.C.BOLASTIG,
Petitioners,
vs
.
GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, AS PRESIDENT ANDCOMMANDER-IN-CHIEF, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY EDUARDO ERMITA, HON. AVELINO CRUZ II,SECRETARY OF NATIONAL DEFENSE, GENERALGENEROSO SENGA, CHIEF OF STAFF, ARMED FORCESOF THE PHILIPPINES, DIRECTOR GENERAL ARTUROLOMIBAO, CHIEF, PHILIPPINE NATIONALPOLICE,
Respondents.x-------------------------------------x
G.R. No. 171409 May 3, 2006NIÑEZ CACHO-OLIVARES AND TRIBUNE PUBLISHINGCO., INC.,
Petitioners,
vs
.
HONORABLE SECRETARY EDUARDO ERMITA ANDHONORABLE DIRECTOR GENERAL ARTURO C.LOMIBAO,
Respondents.x-------------------------------------x
G.R. No. 171485 May 3, 2006FRANCIS JOSEPH G. ESCUDERO, JOSEPH A. SANTIAGO,TEODORO A. CASINO, AGAPITO A. AQUINO, MARIO J.AGUJA, SATUR C. OCAMPO, MUJIV S. HATAMAN, JUANEDGARDO ANGARA, TEOFISTO DL. GUINGONA III,EMMANUEL JOSEL J. VILLANUEVA, LIZA L. MAZA, IMEER. MARCOS, RENATO B. MAGTUBO, JUSTIN MARC SB.CHIPECO, ROILO GOLEZ, DARLENE ANTONINO-CUSTODIO, LORETTA ANN P. ROSALES, JOSEL G.VIRADOR, RAFAEL V. MARIANO, GILBERT C. REMULLA,FLORENCIO G. NOEL, ANA THERESIA HONTIVEROS-BARAQUEL, IMELDA C. NICOLAS, MARVIC M.V.F.LEONEN, NERI JAVIER COLMENARES, MOVEMENT OFCONCERNED CITIZENS FOR CIVIL LIBERTIESREPRESENTED BY AMADO GAT INCIONG,
Petitioners,
vs
.
EDUARDO R. ERMITA, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY,AVELINO J. CRUZ, JR., SECRETARY, DND RONALDO V.PUNO, SECRETARY, DILG, GENEROSO SENGA, AFPCHIEF OF STAFF, ARTURO LOMIBAO, CHIEFPNP,
Respondents.x-------------------------------------x
G.R. No. 171483 May 3, 2006KILUSANG MAYO UNO, REPRESENTED BY ITSCHAIRPERSON ELMER C. LABOG AND SECRETARY GENERAL JOEL MAGLUNSOD, NATIONAL FEDERATIONOF LABOR UNIONS – KILUSANG MAYO UNO (NAFLU-KMU), REPRESENTED BY ITS NATIONAL PRESIDENT, JOSELITO V. USTAREZ, ANTONIO C. PASCUAL,SALVADOR T. CARRANZA, EMILIA P. DAPULANG,MARTIN CUSTODIO, JR., AND ROQUE M.TAN,
Petitioners,
vs
.
HER EXCELLENCY, PRESIDENT GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, THE HONORABLE EXECUTIVE SECRETARY,EDUARDO ERMITA, THE CHIEF OF STAFF, ARMEDFORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES, GENEROSO SENGA, ANDTHE PNP DIRECTOR GENERAL, ARTUROLOMIBAO,
Respondents.
 
x-------------------------------------x
G.R. No. 171400 May 3, 2006ALTERNATIVE LAW GROUPS, INC. (ALG),
Petitioner,
vs
.
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY EDUARDO R. ERMITA, LT.GEN. GENEROSO SENGA, AND DIRECTOR GENERALARTURO LOMIBAO,
 
Respondents.
G.R. No. 171489 May 3, 2006 JOSE ANSELMO I. CADIZ, FELICIANO M. BAUTISTA,ROMULO R. RIVERA, JOSE AMOR M. AMORADO, ALICIAA. RISOS-VIDAL, FELIMON C. ABELITA III, MANUEL P.LEGASPI, J.B. JOVY C. BERNABE, BERNARD L.DAGCUTA, ROGELIO V. GARCIA AND INTEGRATED BAROF THE PHILIPPINES (IBP),
Petitioners,
vs
.
HON. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY EDUARDO ERMITA,GENERAL GENEROSO SENGA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS AFPCHIEF OF STAFF, AND DIRECTOR GENERAL ARTUROLOMIBAO, IN HIS CAPACITY AS PNPCHIEF,
Respondents.x-------------------------------------x
G.R. No. 171424 May 3, 2006LOREN B. LEGARDA,
Petitioner,
vs
.
GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, IN HER CAPACITY ASPRESIDENT AND COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF; ARTUROLOMIBAO, IN HIS CAPACITY AS DIRECTOR-GENERALOF THE PHILIPPINE NATIONAL POLICE (PNP);GENEROSO SENGA, IN HIS CAPACITY AS CHIEF OFSTAFF OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE PHILIPPINES(AFP); AND EDUARDO ERMITA, IN HIS CAPACITY ASEXECUTIVE SECRETARY,
Respondents.D E C I S I O N
SANDOVAL-GUTIERREZ,
 J.
:
All powers need some restraint; practical adjustments ratherthan rigid formula are necessary.
1
Superior strength – theuse of force – cannot make wrongs into rights. In thisregard, the courts should be vigilant in safeguarding theconstitutional rights of the citizens, specifically their liberty.Chief Justice Artemio V. Panganiban’s philosophy of liberty isthus most relevant. He said: "
In cases involving liberty,the scales of justice should weigh heavily againstgovernment and in favor of the poor, the oppressed,the marginalized, the dispossessed and the weak 
."Laws and actions that restrict fundamental rights come tothe courts "with a heavy presumption against theirconstitutional validity."
2
 These seven (7) consolidated petitions for
certiorari
andprohibition allege that in issuing Presidential ProclamationNo. 1017 (PP 1017) and General Order No. 5 (G.O. No. 5),President Gloria Macapagal-
Arroyo
committed grave abuseof discretion. Petitioners contend that respondent officials of the Government, in their professed efforts to defend andpreserve democratic institutions, are actually tramplingupon the very freedom guaranteed and protected by theConstitution. Hence, such issuances are void for beingunconstitutional.Once again, the Court is faced with an age-old butpersistently modern problem.
How does the Constitution of a free people combine the degree of 
liberty 
, without which,law becomes tyranny, with the degree of 
law
, without which, liberty becomes license
?
3
 
On February 24, 2006, as the nation celebrated the 20thAnniversary of the
Edsa People Power I
,President
Arroyo
issued PP 1017 declaring a state of national emergency, thus:
NOW, THEREFORE
, I, Gloria Macapagal-
Arroyo
, Presidentof the Republic of the Philippines and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, by virtue of thepowers vested upon me by Section 18, Article 7 of thePhilippine Constitution which states that: "The President. . .whenever it becomes necessary, . . . may call out (the)armed forces to prevent or suppress. . .rebellion. . .," and inmy capacity as their Commander-in-Chief,
do herebycommand the Armed Forces of the Philippines, tomaintain law and order throughout the Philippines,prevent or suppress all forms of lawless violence aswell as any act of insurrection or rebellion and toenforce obedience to all the laws and to all decrees,orders and regulations promulgated by me personallyor upon my direction
; and
as provided in Section 17,Article 12 of the Constitution do hereby declare aState of National Emergency.
She cited the following facts as bases:
WHEREAS
, over these past months, elements inthe
political opposition have conspired withauthoritarians of the extreme Left represented by theNDF-CPP-NPA and the extreme Right, represented bymilitary adventurists – the historical enemies of thedemocratic Philippine State
– who are now in a tacticalalliance and engaged in a concerted and systematicconspiracy, over a broad front, to bring down the dulyconstituted Government elected in May 2004;
WHEREAS
, these conspirators have repeatedly tried tobring down the President;
WHEREAS
,
the claims of these elements have beenrecklessly magnified by certain segments of thenational media;WHEREAS
, this series of actions is hurting the PhilippineState – by obstructing governance including
hindering thegrowth of the economy and sabotaging the people’sconfidence in government and their faith in thefuture of this country
;
WHEREAS
, these
actions are adversely affecting theeconomy;WHEREAS
,
these activities give totalitarian forces of both the extreme Left and extreme Right the openingto intensify their avowed aims to bring down thedemocratic Philippine State
;
WHEREAS
, Article 2, Section 4 of the our Constitutionmakes the defense and preservation of the democraticinstitutions and the State the primary duty of Government;
WHEREAS
, the activities above-described, theirconsequences, ramifications and collateral effects constitutea
clear and present danger
to the safety and the integrityof the Philippine State and of the Filipino people;On the same day, the President issued G. O. No. 5implementing PP 1017, thus:
WHEREAS
, over these past months, elements in thepolitical opposition have conspired with authoritarians of theextreme Left, represented by the NDF-CPP-NPA and theextreme Right, represented by military adventurists - thehistorical enemies of the democratic Philippine State – andwho are now in a tactical alliance and engaged in aconcerted and systematic conspiracy, over a broad front, to

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