USFSP Debate Crime DA Trigaux 2010
1NC ShellIncreased migration will cause increased gang populations, crime, and violence
Michael K. ± PhD in sociology, ³The Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangs,´http://people.missouristate.edu/MichaelCarlie/what_I_learned_about/gangs/racial_composition.htm)This situation is developing in communities across the United States and in other countries as well
The inability of peoplefrom different nations or races to accommodate each another in the same city
leads to conflict.
This is evident in gang neighborhoods where rental properties and transient populationsabound.
There is little stability in those neighborhoods and they are sociallydisorganized.
When I began my research on gangs I thought most gang members in the United States were African-Americans. That'swhat the mass media seemed to portray. But the reality of the streets was quite different. "The 1998 National Youth Gang Survey revealedthat Hispanics were the predominant racial/ethnic group among all gang members nationwide. As shown in Table 19 (below), Hispanicsaccounted for 46 percent of all gang members, followed by African Americans (34 percent), Caucasians (12 percent), Asians (6 percent), andother races (2 percent)." By 1999 those proportions had changed only slightly to be 47% Hispanic, 31% African-American, 13% Caucasian,and 7% Asian.
The proportion of gang members
who are Hispanic
has been steadily growing
as have thenumber of Hispanics living in the United States. The estimated number of Hispanics living in the United States increased from 27,107,000 in1995 to 32,832,000 in 2000 - an increase of approximately 20% in five years.
This increase, due primarily toimmigration
and a high birth rate among Hispanics
, is now being felt beyond the sunbelt states asHispanics move into communities throughout the United States.
While the vast majority of Hispanics inthe United States are hard-working and make important contributions to the communities in which they live, some
disaffectedHispanic youth contribute to the growing Hispanic gang phenomenon. An ethnicallydiverse population immigrating into the United States results in a more ethnicallydiverse gang population.
It has been that way since peoples of other lands first began immigrating to the United States. For example, in the late 1890's through the first decade of the 1900's, many people from Ireland and Italy immigrated to the United States. At thattime, Irish and Italian street gangs were commonplace. Decades later we have other ethnic minorities immigrating here and, as is often thecase, a small proportion of their members are represented in the gang population. If anything became clear to me over the past three years itwas that
the most recently arrived minority
unless supremely well suited to compete in American society (as are manyof the Asians as exemplified by their emphasis on education and entrepreneurial skills),
will likely find a portion of itsyouth disenfranchised ... and they may turn to gangs as a means of rebelling, finding aplace for themselves, or for earning an income, among other things.
This is referred to in theliterature as the "immigration gang tradition" (Miller, 2001, p. 43). While data on the racial and ethnic composition of gangs suggest they are predominantly Hispanic, African-American, and Caucasian, what's missing is a look inside those ethnic and racial groups. According to the
1998 National Youth Gang Survey
(2000), Respondents estimated thatmore than one-third (36 percent) of their youth gangs had a significantmixture of two or more racial/ethnic groups. The largest proportion of these ³mixed gangs´ was in small cities, where they represented 54 percent of all gangs, and the smallest proportion was in large cities (32 percent). The proportion of mixed gangs was larger in the Midwestthan in any other region. Not only are some gangs composed of a mixture of people from different racial and/or ethnic groups, within theseracial and ethnic groups there are wide variations and accompanying conflicts. Depending upon their roots, these populations may or may notassociate with one another peaceably. Within the category of "Hispanic," for example, are Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Rican, Ecuadorians,Dominicans, Colombians, Panamanians, and others. The situation is the same concerning African-Americans. Depending upon whichAfrican nation an individual comes from, his or her relations with others of African descent may vary. Antagonisms sometimes exist betweenWest Indian blacks ("Afro-Caribbeans," as they are sometimes called, who come from such places as Jamaica, the Dominican Republic,Cuba, Trinidad, Barbados, and Haiti) and blacks from the African continent (i.e., Ghana, Somalia, Kenya, Senegal, and Nigeria, as well as between ethnically divergent tribes within those nations). Conflicts also arise between continental Africans. Conflict and distrust within theAsian community also exists and may be observed at the gang level between Asians who are natives of the Philippines, Korea, Japan,Taiwan, China, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, and other Asian nations. Conflicts between all of these ethnicities(Hispanic, African, Asian) are sometimes ancient in origin and often fueled by current world events.
One can see, therefore,ideological, political, cultural, and personal conflicts between gang youth from differentnations, regardless of whether they are all Hispanic, African-American, or Asian.Theirrelationships with each other
may sometimes be
characterized as distrustful, disrespectful, andviolent.
The point here is that knowledge of the diversity which exists within larger ethnic categories helps us understand some gang behaviors and may guide efforts to reduce the most harmful of them.