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Crime DA Done

Crime DA Done

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Published by David Trigaux

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Published by: David Trigaux on Oct 14, 2010
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USFSP Debate Crime DA Trigaux 2010
1NC ShellIncreased migration will cause increased gang populations, crime, and violence
 
Carlie 2
(
Michael K. ± PhD in sociology, ³The Racial and Ethnic Composition of Gangs,´http://people.missouristate.edu/MichaelCarlie/what_I_learned_about/gangs/racial_composition.htm)This situation is developing in communities across the United States and in other countries as well
.
The inability of peoplefrom different nations or races to accommodate each another in the same city
or neighborhoodsometimes
leads to conflict.
This is evident in gang neighborhoods where rental properties and transient populationsabound.
There is little stability in those neighborhoods and they are sociallydisorganized.
When I began my research on gangs I thought most gang members in the United States were African-Americans. That'swhat the mass media seemed to portray. But the reality of the streets was quite different. "The 1998 National Youth Gang Survey revealedthat Hispanics were the predominant racial/ethnic group among all gang members nationwide. As shown in Table 19 (below), Hispanicsaccounted for 46 percent of all gang members, followed by African Americans (34 percent), Caucasians (12 percent), Asians (6 percent), andother races (2 percent)." By 1999 those proportions had changed only slightly to be 47% Hispanic, 31% African-American, 13% Caucasian,and 7% Asian.
The proportion of gang members
who are Hispanic
has been steadily growing
,
as have thenumber of Hispanics living in the United States. The estimated number of Hispanics living in the United States increased from 27,107,000 in1995 to 32,832,000 in 2000 - an increase of approximately 20% in five years.
This increase, due primarily toimmigration
and a high birth rate among Hispanics
, is now being felt beyond the sunbelt states asHispanics move into communities throughout the United States.
While the vast majority of Hispanics inthe United States are hard-working and make important contributions to the communities in which they live, some
disaffectedHispanic youth contribute to the growing Hispanic gang phenomenon. An ethnicallydiverse population immigrating into the United States results in a more ethnicallydiverse gang population.
It has been that way since peoples of other lands first began immigrating to the United States. For example, in the late 1890's through the first decade of the 1900's, many people from Ireland and Italy immigrated to the United States. At thattime, Irish and Italian street gangs were commonplace. Decades later we have other ethnic minorities immigrating here and, as is often thecase, a small proportion of their members are represented in the gang population. If anything became clear to me over the past three years itwas that
the most recently arrived minority
,
unless supremely well suited to compete in American society (as are manyof the Asians as exemplified by their emphasis on education and entrepreneurial skills),
will likely find a portion of itsyouth disenfranchised ... and they may turn to gangs as a means of rebelling, finding aplace for themselves, or for earning an income, among other things.
This is referred to in theliterature as the "immigration gang tradition" (Miller, 2001, p. 43). While data on the racial and ethnic composition of gangs suggest they are predominantly Hispanic, African-American, and Caucasian, what's missing is a look inside those ethnic and racial groups. According to the
1998 National Youth Gang Survey
(2000), Respondents estimated thatmore than one-third (36 percent) of their youth gangs had a significantmixture of two or more racial/ethnic groups. The largest proportion of these ³mixed gangs´ was in small cities, where they represented 54 percent of all gangs, and the smallest proportion was in large cities (32 percent). The proportion of mixed gangs was larger in the Midwestthan in any other region. Not only are some gangs composed of a mixture of people from different racial and/or ethnic groups, within theseracial and ethnic groups there are wide variations and accompanying conflicts. Depending upon their roots, these populations may or may notassociate with one another peaceably. Within the category of "Hispanic," for example, are Cubans, Mexicans, Puerto Rican, Ecuadorians,Dominicans, Colombians, Panamanians, and others. The situation is the same concerning African-Americans. Depending upon whichAfrican nation an individual comes from, his or her relations with others of African descent may vary. Antagonisms sometimes exist betweenWest Indian blacks ("Afro-Caribbeans," as they are sometimes called, who come from such places as Jamaica, the Dominican Republic,Cuba, Trinidad, Barbados, and Haiti) and blacks from the African continent (i.e., Ghana, Somalia, Kenya, Senegal, and Nigeria, as well as between ethnically divergent tribes within those nations). Conflicts also arise between continental Africans. Conflict and distrust within theAsian community also exists and may be observed at the gang level between Asians who are natives of the Philippines, Korea, Japan,Taiwan, China, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, and other Asian nations. Conflicts between all of these ethnicities(Hispanic, African, Asian) are sometimes ancient in origin and often fueled by current world events.
One can see, therefore,ideological, political, cultural, and personal conflicts between gang youth from differentnations, regardless of whether they are all Hispanic, African-American, or Asian.Theirrelationships with each other
may sometimes be
characterized as distrustful, disrespectful, andviolent.
The point here is that knowledge of the diversity which exists within larger ethnic categories helps us understand some gang behaviors and may guide efforts to reduce the most harmful of them.
 
 
USFSP Debate Crime DA Trigaux 2010
Uniqueness² 
Crime is down in the SQ
J
ansen 2010
Kim, AP, ³Times are tough, but crime is down´ Chicago Sun TimesSeptember 14, 2010
h
ttp://www.suntimes.com/news/24-7/2705954,CST-NWS-crime14.article
 
Nationally, violent crime is down for the third straight year.
Property crime for the seventh.
And expertsare hard-pressed to explain why
Violent crimes dropped 5.3 percent last year, the FBI said Monday, and property crimes fell4.6 percent.
Typically crime rates head up when the economy heads down.So this trend is "oneof these welcome puzzles,"
says Richard Rosenfeld of the American Society of Criminology. "This is forcing us to think moreseriously under what conditions economic activity influences crime."Violent crime fell in Chicago by 6.6 percent last year, and property crimedeclined by 9.3 percent
 
Link²the affirmative lets more immigrants into the country, causing ethnic clash, poverty, and social disenfranchisement, which leads to the formation of gangs andincreased crime and violence²that¶s Carlie in 2002.If the Affirmative allows any new individuals into the nation, they trigger our impacts.Carlie doesn¶t reference mass movements of new foreign nationals, but rather the perception that more foreigners are coming. Their evidence is non-responsive to our  perception link 
 
USFSP Debate Crime DA Trigaux 2010
2NC Impact Scenario: Drug Trafficking
 
1.
 
G
angs are migrating to expand drug markets and other criminal trades
 
U.S. Department of 
J
ustice 9
(³Gangs, Gang Membership, and Comprehensive Strategies´http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/print.asp?Item=1593)
In the last decade, the media, the public and law enforcement agencies have cited gang migration as a growingtrend. The perception of gang migration may stem not only from the spread of gangs into new territories, butmay also from the popularization and allure of gang culture in popular culture. Street
gangs havetraditionally been associated with inner-city neighborhoods. Many observers, includinglaw enforcement practitioners and academics, cite as a growing trend the movement of gangs into suburban and rural neighborhoods. Factors contributing to this geographicexpansion may include increased
 pressure by law enforcement operations in urban settings as well as the
desire of gangs to expand their lucrative markets for drug and other illegal enterprises.2.
 
Drugs Cause Crime
 
White House.gov 6
(7/26/06, http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/crime/index.html, accessed 7/31/10)
Drugs are related to crime in multiple ways
.
Most directly, it is a crime to use, possess, manufacture, or distribute drugsclassified as having a potential for abuse (such as cocaine, heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines).Drugs are also related to crime
throughthe effects they have on the user's behavior and by generating violence and other illegalactivity in connection with drug trafficking
.
The chart below summarizes the various ways that drugs and crime arerelated.
 
Drug-related offenses and drug-using lifestyles are major contributors to the U.S.crime problem
and are the focus of this fact sheet. Drug Use and Its Relation to the Commission of Crimes The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) conducts an annual National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA) that asks individuals living inhouseholds about their drug and alcohol use and their involvement in crimes (see table 1). Provisional data for 1997 show that respondentsarrested in the past year for possession or sale of drugs and driving under the influence had the highest percentage of illicit drug use in the pastyear. Past year illicit drug users were also about 16 times more likely than nonusers to report being arrested and booked for larceny or theft; morethan 14 times more likely to be arrested and booked for such offenses as driving under the influence, drunkenness, or liquor law violations; andmore than 9 times more likely to be arrested and booked on an assault charge. The annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National CrimeVictimization Survey (NCVS) asks victims of violent crimes who reported seeing the offender whether they perceived the offender to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol
 
This snowballs our impact into a vicious cycle of structural violence that can¶t be stopped
3.
 
Drug trafficking funds terrorism, and destroys sovereignty,
democracy, and humanrights
Oscapella 2001
Eugene Oscapella -- Canadian Foundation for Drug Policy, October 29, 2001 ³How Drug Prohibition Finances and Otherwise EnablesTerrorism´ http://www.cfdp.ca/eoterror.htmDrug trafficking has, throughout this century, been an international enterprise and hence an international problem. However, the ever increasingscale of the traffic, the apparent efficiency of organization and sophistication,
the vast sums of money involved and theincreasing links with transnational organized crime and terrorist organizations constitute athreat
which is increasingly serious in both its nature and extent.
Illicit drug trafficking now threatens peaceand security at a national and international level. It affects the sovereignty of some states,the right of self-determination and democratic government, economic, social and politicalstability and the enjoyment of human rights.
 

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