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Internet Security Notes

Internet Security Notes

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Published by cool.tba
this is Internet Security Q&A that are not provided by Vahid SIr A.P. College

Credit- Aatif Ansari
this is Internet Security Q&A that are not provided by Vahid SIr A.P. College

Credit- Aatif Ansari

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Published by: cool.tba on Oct 14, 2010
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Ethics of Security Policy
Privacy and Confidentiality
To provide the highest level of privacy possible for users of its information technology systems and to assure their rightsof free speech and intellectual freedom are protected and uninhibited.
Protection of Information
The level of security practices required for various information types depends on who has created the information, whois maintaining the information, the nature of the information itself, and whether there are specific laws or requirementsor guidelines associated with the use and distribution of the information.
Organization Information
An Organization has many types of official information including staff records, financial records, personnel records, andother business records.
Individual Information
Individual information includes academic, research, personal and business correspondence, and other records createdand managed by individualstaff. As creators and managers of this information, individuals are responsible for securingand protecting their information.
Password Security
Users are responsible for the security of computer systems passwords, personal account passwords (e.g. Net-IDpasswords) and personal identification numbers (PINs) and will be held accountable for anyactivities linked to theiraccounts. Users must follow established university standards for maintaining and managing passwords.
Security for IT Systems
Computer systems can become transmitters of viruses, denial of service attacks, open file exchange services, and othermalicious electronic activities. To prevent these malicious activities, individuals are required to be aware of and complywith policies relating to the use of these applications.
Reporting Security Breaches
Effective security practice includes the prompt and appropriate response to breaches in security. It is a duty upon allindividuals to report incidents in which they believe computer or network security is at risk.
Route cipher
In a route cipher, the plaintext is first written out ina grid of given dimensions, thenread off in a pattern given in the key. For example, using the same plaintext that weused for rail fence:W R I O R F E O EE E S V E L A N JA D C E D E T C X
The key might specify "spiral inwards, clockwise, starting from the top right". That would give a cipher text of:
EJXCTEDECDAEWRIORFEONALEVSE
Route ciphers have many more keys than a rail fence. In fact, for messages of reasonable length, the number of possiblekeys is potentially too great to be enumerated even by modern machinery. However, not all keys are equally good. Badlychosen routes will leave excessive chunks of plaintext, or text simply reversed, and this will give cryptanalysts a clue asto the routes.
 
An interesting variation of the route cipher was the Union Route Cipher, used by Union forces during the American CivilWar. This worked much like an ordinary route cipher, but transposed whole words instead of individual letters. Becausethis would leave certain highly sensitive words exposed, such words would first be concealed by code. The cipher clerkmay also add entire null words, which were often chosen to make the ciphertext humorous
Difference between Virus,worms and Trojans
Virus
A computer virus attaches itself to a program or file enabling it to spread from one computer to another, leavinginfections as it travels. Like a human virus, a computer virus can range in severity: some may cause only mildly annoyingeffects while others can damage your hardware, software or files.Almost all viruses are attached to an executable file, which means the virus may exist on your computer but it actuallycannot infect your computer unless you run or open the malicious program. It is important to note that a virus cannot bespread without a human action, (such as running an infected program) to keep it going.People continue the spread of a computer virus, mostly unknowingly, by sharing infecting files or sending e-mails withviruses as attachments in the e-mail.
Worm
A worm is similar to a virus by design and is considered to be a sub-class of a virus. Worms spread from computer tocomputer, but unlike a virus, it has the capability to travel without any human action. A worm takes advantage of file orinformation transport features on your system, which is what allows it to travel unaided.The biggest danger with a worm is its capability to replicate itself on your system, so rather than your computer sendingout a single worm, it could send out hundreds or thousands of copies of itself, creating a huge devastating effect. Oneexample would be for a worm to send a copy of itself to everyone listed in your e-mail address book. Then, the wormreplicates and sends itself out to everyone listed in each of the receiver's address book, and the manifest continues ondown the line.Due to the copying nature of a worm and its capability to travel across networks the end result in most cases is that theworm consumes too much system memory (or network bandwidth), causing Web servers, network servers andindividual computers to stop responding. In recent worm attacks such as the much-talked-about Blaster Worm, theworm has been designed to tunnel into your system and allow malicious users to control your computer remotely.
Trojan horse
A Trojan Horse is full of asmuch trickery as the mythological Trojan Horse it was named after. The Trojan Horse, at firstglance will appear to be useful software but will actually do damage once installed or run on your computer. Those onthe receiving end of a Trojan Horse are usually tricked into opening them because they appear to be receiving legitimatesoftware or files from a legitimate source. When a Trojan is activated on your computer, the results can vary. SomeTrojans are designed to be more annoying than malicious (like changing your desktop, adding silly active desktop icons)or they can cause serious damage by deleting files and destroying information on your system. Trojans are also known tocreate a backdoor on your computer that gives malicious users access to yoursystem, possibly allowing confidential orpersonal information to be compromised. Unlike viruses and worms, Trojans do not reproduce by infecting other filesnor do they self-replicateTrojan horse-It is a program, using this program it will make the victim system to make listen on particular port, so thatattacker can do anything on your system, i.e.he cantamper the data,theft the data,destroy the data etc...., trojanhorse wont spread in to the system like a virus so it will not affect the system performance.Virus-It is a malicious program, using this program it will damage your system, by injectingthe virus in to anotherprograms are files, so that it will degrade your system performance.Virus will come to the system with user interactiononly.
 
worm-It is also one type of virus, using this program it will damage your system like virus, not only system it will spread'sthroughout the network and checks for honey pot of your os, and enteringto the os,it will degrade your systemperformance andalso it will eat your network bandwidth also.Virus -Technically, a virus infects another file (attaches or inserts itself into it). They usually infect program files or MSOffice documents. From there, it can replicate, do damage, etc. Unlike a worm,these do not function as a standalone(except possibly to infect a given file).Worm -This is almost identical to a "true virus", except that it lives on its own and generally doesn't infect other files(although it can replace them). Usually, these copy themselves using e-mail, networks, disks, etc. Again, these are veryclose to a true virus, and can do the same kind of damage.Trojan Horse -This type of program doesn't copy itself but does do damage to your computer. These types of programsrely on people to pass them around and to run them. They do not e-mail themselves. The idea is to make the programlook like it's something harmless, like a screen saver or joke, so it gets sent around.The most common blunder people make when the topic of a computer virus arises is to refer to a worm or Trojan horseas a virus. While the words Trojan, worm and virus are often used interchangeably, they are not the same. Viruses,worms and Trojan Horses are all malicious programs that can cause damage to your computer, but there are differencesamong the three, and knowing those differences can help you to better protect your computer from their oftendamaging effects.A computer virus attaches itself to a program or file so it can spread from one computer to another, leaving infections asit travels. Much like human viruses, computer viruses can range in severity: Some viruses cause only mildly annoyingeffects while others can damage your hardware, software or files. Almost all viruses are attached to an executable file,which means the virus may exist on your computer but it cannot infect your computer unless you run or open themalicious program. It is important to note that a virus cannot be spread without a human action, (such as running aninfected program) to keep it going. People continue the spread of a computer virus, mostly unknowingly, by sharinginfecting files or sending e-mails with viruses as attachments in the e-mail.A worm is similar to a virus by its design, and is considered to be a sub-class of a virus. Worms spread from computer tocomputer, but unlike a virus, it has the capability to travel without any help from a person. A worm takes advantage of file or information transport features on your system, which allows it to travel unaided. The biggest danger with a wormis its capability to replicate itself on your system, so rather than your computer sending out a single worm, it could sendout hundreds or thousands of copies of itself, creating a huge devastating effect. One example would be for a worm tosend a copy of itself to everyone listed in your e-mail address book. Then, the worm replicates and sends itself out toeveryone listed in each of the receiver's address book, and the manifest continues on down the line. Due to the copyingnature of a worm and its capability to travel across networks the end result in most cases is that the worm consumes toomuch system memory (or network bandwidth), causing Web servers, network servers and individual computers to stopresponding. In more recentworm attacks such as the much-talked-about .Blaster Worm., the worm has been designedto tunnel into your system and allow malicious users to control your computer remotely.A Trojan Horse is full of as much trickery as the mythological Trojan Horse it was named after. The Trojan Horse, at firstglance will appear to be useful software but will actually do damage once installed or run on your computer. Those onthe receiving end of a Trojan Horse are usually tricked into opening them because they appear to be receiving legitimatesoftware or files from a legitimate source. When a Trojan is activated on your computer, the results can vary. SomeTrojans are designed to be more annoying than malicious (like changing your desktop, adding silly active desktop icons)or they can cause serious damage by deleting files and destroying information on your system. Trojans are also known tocreate a backdoor on your computer that gives malicious users access to your system, possibly allowing confidential or

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