long as S remains closed). The green curve in the graph to the right shows the voltage across Land C, assuming S was closed at time t = 0.When C is fully charged, the magnetic field is exhausted and the circuit current is once againzero. Now, C begins to discharge once again, driving current through L in the opposite direction.The red curve to the right shows the current flowing through L and C, beginning at the instant Sis closed. The end result is a continuous oscillation, as shown in the graph. Note that the voltage and current curves look the same, but peak at different times. This is thenormal behavior of this type of circuit.In fact, the waveforms for both voltage and current in this circuit are sine waves. Technically, the(green) curve for circuit voltage is a cosine wave. Both are true sine waves, but are 90° out of phase with each other.This circuit operates by transferring energy back and forth between C and L. A circuit that doesthis is said to
, and the particular frequency at which this phenomenon occurs is knownas the
of the circuit. This resonant frequency is determined by the values of Land C, in accordance with the equation:When studying this circuit and its behavior, keep in mind that all components here aretheoretically ideal, having no resistance to absorb and dissipate energy. In the real world, this isimpossible. (Although we have made strides towards room-temperature superconductors, wedon't have perfect conductors at room temperature as of this writing.) The inductor especially, being made of many turns of relatively fine wire, has an inherent internal resistance. We canreduce that resistance by using heavier-gauge wire, but that increases the cost rapidly. It is mucheasier to allow for that resistance, and to deal with it as it is. That is the subject of the next page,on circuits containing resistance, inductance, and capacitance.