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egy employed to establish power and guarantee pro\ue000ts. Tolerance, of course, seemed to be a reasonable response to the religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, but tolerance based upon indifference to all values except political power and materialism relegated ultimate questions of meaning to private life. Conyers offers another model for tolerance based upon values and resources already resident in pre-Reformation Christianity. In this paper, we consider Conyer\u2019s case against the modern, secular form of tolerance and its current practice. We examine his attempt to reclaim the practice of Christian tolerance based upon humility, hospitality and the \u201cpowerful fact\u201d of the incarnation. Furthermore, we bring the late Conyers into dialog with Fethullah G\u00fclen, a Muslim scholar, proli\ue000c writer and the source of inspiration for a transnational civil society movement. We explore how both Conyers and G\u00fclen interpret their scriptures in order to fashion a theology and politi- cal ideology conducive to peaceful co-existence. Finally, because G\u00fclen\u2019s identity has been formed within the Su\ue000 tradition, we re\ue001ect on the spiritual resources within Su\ue000 spirituality that make dialog and toleration key values for him.
the way for authentic toleration. These include humility, trust, reconciliation, the interrelat- edness of all things, the paradox of power--that is, that strength is found in weakness and greatness in service\u2014hope, the inherent goodness of creation, and interfaith dialog. Conyers refers to this latter practice as developing \u201cthe listening heart\u201d and \u201cthe open soul.\u201d
In his writings and oral addresses, G\u00fclen prefers the termhoshgoru (literally, \u201cgood view\u201d) to \u201ctolerance.\u201d Conceptually, the former term indicates actions of the heart and the mind that include empathy, inquisitiveness, re\ue001ection, consideration of the dialog partner\u2019s context, and respect for their positions. The term \u201ctolerance\u201d does not capture the notion ofhoshgoru. Elsewhere, G\u00fclen \ue000nds even the concept ofhoshgoru insuf\ue000cient, and employs terms with more depth in interfaith relations, such as respect and an appreciation of the positions of your
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