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Psychology as a Science and Scope of Psychology

Psychology as a Science and Scope of Psychology

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Published by: Sameen Fakhar Qureshi on Oct 14, 2010
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Psychology as ascience and scope of psychology
Presented by: SAMEEN FAKHAR QURESHI 09-46803/15/2010
 
CAN PSYCHOLOGY BE A SCIENCE?
Whether or not and to what degree psychology can be ought tobe a science is more than a trivial academic disputation. Inpsychology the connection between authority and scientificallybased expertise is especially close. Psychologists are everywhereexerting considerable influence on modern life. Their claim toauthority rests upon the claim that psychology is no simply can beor ought to be but is
science
.
 John Stuart miller (1806-1873)
was one of the most thoughtfuland forceful advocates of the scientific psychology in the 19
th
century, and he carefully considered the possibility thatpsychology might never achieve the same degree of sophistication and precision as physics. The number of forces thataffect the subject matter are at most four (gravity,electromagnetism, strong and weak nuclear forces), while thenumber of human motives is large and unknown. The basicparticles that make up all physical objects number somewhatmore than a dozen and have the same character throughout theuniverse, while no two humans are alike and we are affected byhistorical and cultural context that have no parallel in nature.Physical things do not know that we are studying them whilehuman behavior might change in case they know they are beingobserved. More over the very existence of a discipline of psychology may alter human behavior. As we learn the causesand mechanism of human reaction and action, we can reflect onthem, perhaps weakening the hold they have on us. Electrons andsofas can’t read physics texts and decide on whether tocooperate on the laws of nature.Such considerations suggest at least that psychology is muchmore complex science than physics, perhaps so complex that no
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amount of research, statistics or sophisticated theorizing can takeit to the same stage of scientific perfection as physics.Mill thought that taking psychology as a science, people could bestudied scientifically, and that study might bear useful fruit.Psychologists use
scientific observation and researchmethods
(a systematic process for answering questions) toanswer questions about behavior. They use the samemethodology of changing variables; dependant and independent,as for carrying out scientific experiments.
Critical thinking
isalso a tool in finding out answers to the questions that are leftunanswered that is the ability to think, evaluate, compare,analyze, critique and synthesize information.Substantiating the same argument, the largest branch of psychology is clinical psychology, concerned with diagnosis andtreatment of mental and behavioral disorders, is taught inuniversity; the clinical psychologist is trained as scientists firstand healers second, granting them PhD. degree.
APPLICATIONS OF PSYCHOLOGY:
Applied psychology refers to the use of psychological principlesand research methods to solve practical problems. The largestapplied areas are clinical and counseling psychology, but thereare many others. In fields as diverse as business, education,sports, law and the environment, psychology is being applied toour lives.
Industrial –organizational psychology:
 They study the behavior of people at work. Very likely theirefforts will affect how you will be selected for a job, tested,
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