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: The study of human beings and their ancestors. Physicalcharacteristics, culture, environmental interaction & social relations as well.
: The study of material remains (as fossil relics, artifacts, andmonuments) from past plant/ animal life as well as human life and activities.
H. Leakey Family
: Famous family of archaeologists and anthropologists (20th C.- East Africa). Credited with fossil discoveries adding to our knowledge Man's evolutionarydevelopment.
II. Theory of Human Evolution
Humans, like other creatures in nature, evolved from simpler into more complexorganisms over geologic time. Those creatures best suited (adapted) to the environment werefavored via
III. Physical Evidence (From the Fossil Record & Excavation sites)A.
Evolutionary Bond between Modern Man & Modern Apes.1. Use of Technology2. Social + Physical Similarities3. Genetic Composition.
Major Evolutionary Stages1. Australopithecus afarensis (3.6 mil. BP
, 'Lucy')2. Homo Habilis (2.5 mil. BP, Skillful Man)3. Homo Erectus (1.6 mill. BP, Erect Man)
4. Homo Neanderthalensis ( ~400k BP to ~40k BP, Neanderthal Man)
5. Homo Sapien (~200k BP, Thinking Man)
Significant Anatomical Changes in Evolutionary Stages
'Links' in HumanEvolutionaryChainAnatomical ChangePossible Behavioral Impact
Hips are oriented and formed differently.Bipedal (not fully erect), Tree living abandoned forincreased time on ground.
Increased Brain Cavity, hands distinguishable from feet.Expanded capacity to adapt to the environment. Hands
Parenthetical dates appearing here indicates approximate time of appearance in the fossil record.
Tamed fire and first to leave the African continent.
Lived during the Ice Age. Archaeological sites show evidence of ritual burials. Often called ‘Neanderthal’ referring to the
where the first fossils were found. Though the textbook (copyright 1997) refers to the hominid as "Homo Sapien" , the sciencecommunity has dropped the 'Sapien' suffix and substituted "Neanderthalensis". This, in light of evidence indicating it didn’t contributeto human evolution. African fossils are lacking and mtDNA analysis suggest no genetic lineage to modern humans.
Modern Man, often called Cro-Magnon in reference to the nearby town where the first fossils were first found, may have come incontact & competed with Homo Neanderthalensis. More recent (than that in your textbook) research grants the Homo Sapiendesignation to modern man. The Homo Sapien-Sapien designation is no longer accepted.
According to the fossil record available, change in several skeletal remains of Australopithecus support the likelihood that differentspecies existed. Three of the species are
. A fourthspecie was announced in 2010. The brain cavity doesn’t appear to have increased appreciably from that of modern Chimpanzees andthe height of each is similar (~4 feet).