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AN01b1_Humans Try to Control Nature

AN01b1_Humans Try to Control Nature

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Published by Anthony Valentin
Revolution in food production establishes a foundation for early river valley civilizations.
This ‘change’ is comprised of many other ‘small’ changes involving technology, animal domestication and transforming social roles. Among some of the smaller changes we would include:
● New and better tools of stone.
● Use and improvement of metal tools.
● Harnessing animal power.
● Increasing social complexity
Revolution in food production establishes a foundation for early river valley civilizations.
This ‘change’ is comprised of many other ‘small’ changes involving technology, animal domestication and transforming social roles. Among some of the smaller changes we would include:
● New and better tools of stone.
● Use and improvement of metal tools.
● Harnessing animal power.
● Increasing social complexity

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Anthony Valentin on Oct 14, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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AN01b1_Ch01- The Peopling of the World: Humans Try to Control NatureTimeline: ~10000 BP - 5500 BP (Neolithic Age)
 
FS:
 How can people answer questions without books, modern machines, and the Internet?
 
Main Idea:
 Culture is a trait peculiar to humans. The archaeological record shows that pre-humans lived an existence where instinct, rather than culture, may have dominated daily routines. However, Homo Neanderthalensis exhibited traces of a developing cultural awareness in their burial sites that may reflect the early stages of cultural development in Homo Sapiens.
 
Initially, natural phenomena, like death, were inexplicable in a pre-scientific society. Over time, many other experiences, formerly unexplainable, came to be explained via the development of myths. The myths, along with rituals developed in tandem.
 
The revolution in food production establishes a foundation for early river valley civilizations. This ‘change’ is comprised of many other ‘small’ changes involving technology, animal domestication and transforming social roles. Among some of the smaller changes we would include: New and better stone tools, Use and improvement of metal tools, Harnessing animal power, and Increasing social complexity.
 
CCSS...
 
I. Vocabulary
 
A. Proverb: A written expression of a cultural 'truism' generated over time and passed down from generation to generation.
 
B. Culture: Customs/ traditions, values and norms of a particular group of people. Culture varies with a group's historical context.
 
C. Cultural Diffusion: The process via which hybrid cultures are created when two or more cultures come in contact.
 
D.Myth: Greek for Poetic Story.
 
E.Neolithic Age:
 
Literally means New Stone Age.
 
A period in human history from ~10,000 BP to 5,500 BP marked by the use of increasingly specialized tools made of stone. The period ends as metal tools replace stone (Copper, Bronze, Iron Ages). (Remember: Homo Neanderthalensis has already become extinct in Asia by 50k BP, in Europe by ~40k BP)
 
F.Revolution: Contextually, it refers to drastic and quick change.
 
G.Neolithic Revolution:
 
The rapid advancement in the domestication and cultivation of crop plants during the Neolithic period. In addition, many animals were similarly domesticated at this time. Such advancements contributed to the abandonment of a hunter-gatherer lifestyle for an agrarian (sedentary) lifestyle.
 
II.
 
Migrations from Africa and Development of Culture
 
A. East toward the Far East
 
B. South toward Southern Africa
 
C. North toward Europe
 
 
AN01b1_Ch01- The Peopling of the World: Humans Try to Control Nature
 
1. Enroute to East Asia, pre-humans
1
and humans
2
spread into Europe, Central Asia, & South Asia.
 
2. By ~50,000 BP, the Bering Straits is bridged by land exposed by lower global water levels (the polar ice caps fixed a greater volume of water than at the present.) Anatomically modern humans cross the straits into the Western hemisphere.
3
(Homo Neanderthalensis became extinct in Asia by 50k BP, in Europe by ~40k BP)
 
3. Glacial corridors
4 
allow human migration southward into the South American continent.
 
1
Homo Erectus
 
2
Anatomically modern (Homo Sapien).
 
Recent research, since 1997,
 
now suggests that Homo Neanderthalensis evolved outside of Africa and is not in the human evolutionary chain.
 
3
An explanation for crossing over to the Americas could have been the hunting of animal prey that migrated regularly to North America via the ‘land bridge’ over the straits. Since no comparable predator existed in the western hemisphere, humans immediately climbed to the top of the food chain and flourished.
 
4
Corridors’ refers to areas of exposed earth (or minimal glacial ice) between large segments of glaciers. These glaciers covered portions of North America from the Arctic Circle southward beyond the northern border of the ‘lower’ 48 States of the United States.
 
III.
 
Myths
 
Myths are often accepted as the records of religious events that are too ancient to provide some of the literary proof we've come to expect in modern writing. Think of a newspaper article, textbook chapter, etc., these modern examples of writing provide data that can be further researched to establish, with a degree of certainty, that the events highlighted occurred at a certain time much as they were described. Myths, lacking some of these modern attributes of nonfiction writing, still serve an important role for the researcher. Since myths were already ancient by the times civilizations developed, they carried great cultural importance. That importance earmarked myths as prime candidates for recording when writing became feasible. In written form, myths acquired immortality and represent some of the oldest and most sacred of religious texts.
 
For the anthropologist, myths are a 'window' into the values of early societies. Often, myths from different lands and time periods appear to be similar. If a society shared many of the same values, it's logical to think they would have similar myths.
 
A. To pre-scientific societies, myths helped explain natural phenomena and answer questions about human origin, earthly purpose, and mortality. Creation myths offer an explanation for the historical and/ or present condition of a people. Often, these questions could not be answered to anyone’s satisfaction in any other manner. In essence, myths develop over time to address a gap in a culture's history. Myths...
 
 
AN01b1_Ch01- The Peopling of the World: Humans Try to Control Nature
1. Show the wonders of the universe/ nature.
 
2. Relate the universe to our lives.
 
3. Validates a social order. (Who should be leaders, followers, honored, revered, etc.)
 
4. Teaches us how to live under a variety of circumstances. 5. Myths explain the human condition/ nature as products of divine intervention. 'History,' therefore, is predominantly a result of divine forces and not the will of Man.
 
B. Myths reveal that...
 
1. gods intervene.
 
2. gods are anthropomorphic
 
3. there is a Human – Divine Connection
 
4. 'Floods' serve to cleanse the earth and punish.
 
5. Kings are divine or divinely chosen.
 
6. ’Heroes' live long lives but often the lives are very difficult.
 
7. Questions are posed and addressed that focus on Immortality, divine knowledge, morality, etc.
 
How can we explain the similarity in content (and moral) of these and other myths?
 
1.Joseph Campbell:* The Human psyche is the same all over the world. Archetypes are the common ideas of myths.
 
2.Cultural Diffusion: Contact on one or more levels (conquest, commerce, assimilation, etc.) between cultures could partially explain how myths from a few cultures are similar.
 
IV. Climate Change and
 
New Tools Contribute to a Farming Lifestyle
 
A. Warmer + Drier = increased world food supply (Ice Age ends 18,000 BP + glaciers begin receding). Increased food supply as grasses populate open areas revealed by the retreating ice sheets. Three weeks of labor cultivating grains and other domesticated crops meets the calorie needs for one year.
 
1.Fertile Crescent: Nile, Tigris-Euphrates Rivers- Wheat, Barley, Rye (~9000 BP)
 
2.China: Huang He River- millet (~8000 BP)
 
3.Mesoamerica: Corn
 
(~9000 BP)
 
4.Andean: Potatoes (~7000 BP)
 
B. Population pressures [Increased food supply in environment = more people]
 
C. Domestication of animals [horses, dogs, sheep, goats, pigs-
 
meat, milk, wool]
 #
V.
 
The Transformation of Human Communities- The Revolution
 
The agricultural revolution had such a profound impact on society that many people call this era the "dawn of civilization." During the same period that the plow was invented, the wheel, writing, and

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