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Chemistry Notes (Acids, Bases and Salts)

Chemistry Notes (Acids, Bases and Salts)

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Chemistry notes on Acids,bases and salts
Chemistry notes on Acids,bases and salts

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Published by: Teo Jia Ming Nickolas on Oct 15, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/18/2013

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Nickolas Teo
Acids, bases and salts
1.
 
A
cids and bases
y
 
A
cid
 
A
n acid is a substance that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
o
 
H
as a sour taste
o
 
Turns blue litmus paper red
o
 
Turns Universal Indicator red/ orange/ yellow
y
 
B
ase
 
A
base is a substance that accepts hydrogen ions when reacting with an acid
 
A
lkalis are soluble bases
o
 
H
as a bitter taste and soppy feel
o
 
P
roduces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water
o
 
Turns Universal Indicator blue/ violet
y
 
p
H
 
 
p
H
of a solution is based on the relative concentration of hydrogen or hydroxideions present in the solution
 
The universal indicator is a mixture of dyes that changes color depending on thep
H
 
 
B
y comparing against a p
H
colour chart, the hydrogen/ hydroxide ionsconcentration or relative acidity/ alkalinity can be determined
y
 
S
trength of acid
 
A
strong acid completely dissociates when dissolved in water to producehydrogen ions
 
A
weak acid partially dissociates when dissolved in water to produce hydrogenions, leaving some acid molecules undissociated in the solution
y
 
R
eaction of acids
 
R
eact with metals to from hydrogen and a salt
o
 
M
etal + acid
salt + hydrogen
 
R
eact with carbonates to form a salt, carbon dioxide and water
o
 
C
arbonate + acid
salt + water + carbon dioxide
 
R
eact with bases to from a salt and water (neutralization)
o
 
B
ase + acid
salt + water
o
 
Ionic :
H
+
+ O
H
-
 
 
H
2
O
y
 
Uses of acids
 
S
ulfuric acid
o
 
M
ake detergents
o
 
M
ake fertilizers
o
 
Used in car batteries
y
 
R
eaction of bases
 
 
Nickolas Teo
 
R
eact with acids to from a salt and water (neutralization)
o
 
B
ase + acid
salt + water
o
 
Ionic :
H
+
+ O
H
-
 
 
H
2
O
 
R
eact with ammonium salts, when heated, to produce ammonia gas and salt
o
 
A
lkali + ammonium salt
ammonia + water + salt
y
 
p
H
of soils
 
They affect the growth and development of plants
o
 
Too acidic soil would prevent plant growth
 
p
H
controlled by adding bases, like quicklime (calcium oxide) and slaked lime(calcium hydroxide), to raise the p
H
of acidic soils
o
 
A
lkalis/ aqueous alkalis are not used as they seep into the soil as raisethe ph by too much
y
 
Oxides
 
A
cidic
o
 
A
re non
-
metal oxides
o
 
M
ost dissolve readily in water to give acids
o
 
R
eact with alkalis to give salt and water
o
 
Uses of sulfur dioxide
 
A
s a beaching agent in manufacturing of paper (bleaches woodpulp)
 
A
s a food preservative, as it is a disinfectant (Kills bacteria)
 
B
asic
o
 
A
re metal oxides
o
 
M
ost are insoluble in water. Those that do are called alkalis
o
 
S
olids at room temperature
o
 
R
eact with acids to give salt and water
 
A
mphoteric
o
 
A
re metallic oxides that react with both acids and bases to from saltsand water
 
A
luminum, Lead(II), Zinc
 
Neutral
o
 
A
re non
-
metal oxides that do not react with acids or bases
o
 
A
re insoluble in water
o
 
W
ater,
C
arbon monoxide, Nitrogen monoxide
2
.
 
S
alts
y
 
S
alts are ionic compounds that is formed when a metallic/ ammonium ions replaces oneor more hydrogen ions of a acid (when acid reacts with base)
y
 
P
reparation of salts
 
P
recipitation
o
 
Used to prepare insoluble salts
o
 
R
eact two soluble reactants with desired cation and anion

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